Motion 4 Terminology

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Motion 4 Terminology
2012-08-30 16:44:52

Terms found in the back of the Motion 4 training book.
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  1. 4:3
    The standard display aspect ratio of a traditional television set. See aspect ratio.
  2. 8-bit
    For video, a bit depth at which color is sampled. Eight-bit color is common with DV and other standard-definition digital formats. Some high-definition acquisition formats can also record in 8-bit, but they usually record in 10-bit. Refers to 8 bits per color channel, making a total of 24 bits in an RGB image and 32 bits in an RGB image with an alpha channel.
  3. 16:9
    The standard display aspect ratio of a high-definition television set. See aspect ratio.
  4. Action Safe
    The area inside a border that is 5 percent smaller than the overall size of the video frame. Some or all of the Canvas image beyond this border will be cropped by the video display monitor or television. How much is cropped varies among different TV manufacturers. See Title Safe.
  5. AIFF
    (Audio Interchange File Format) Apple's native uncompressed audio file format created for the Macintosh computer, commonly used for the storage and transmission of digitally sampled sound.
  6. alpha channel
    An image channel in addition to the R, G, B color channels that is used to store transparency information for compositing. In Motion, black represents 100 percent transparent, and white represents 100 percent opaque.
  7. anamorphic
    An image shot in a wide-screen format and then squeezed into 4:3 frame size.
  8. anchor point
    In the Properties tab of the Inspector, the point that is used to center changes to a clip when using motion effects. A clip's anchor point does not have to be at its center.
  9. animation
    The process of changing any number of variables, such as color, audio levels, or other effects, over time using keyframes or behaviors. See keyframe.
  10. aspect ratio
    The ratio of the width of an image to its height on any viewing screen. Standard TV has an aspect ratio of 4:3; HDTV's is 16:9. See high definition.
  11. audio mixing
    The process of adjusting the volume levels of all audio clips in an edited sequence, including the production audio, music, sound effects, voice-overs, and additional background ambience, to turn all of these sounds into a harmonious whole.
  12. audio sample rate
    The rate or frequency at which a sound is sampled to digitize it. The standard sampling rate for digital audio is 48 kHz; CD audio is sampled at 44.1 kHz.
  13. audio waveform
    A graphical representation of the amplitude (loudness) of a sound over a period of time.
  14. AVI
    A PC-compatible standard for digital video no longer officially supported by Microsoft but still frequently used. AVI supports fewer codecs than QuickTime. Some AVI codecs will not play back in QuickTime and will thus be inaccessible in Motion without prior format conversion.
  15. batch export
    The ability to export multiple clips and/or sequences with a single command by stacking them up in a queue. In Motion, the "Export using Compressor" option can be used to generate a batch export.
  16. Bezier handles
    The "control handles" attached to a Bezier curve that allow you to change the shape of the curve.
  17. black level
    The measurement of the black portion of the video signal. This level is represented by 7.5 IRE in the United States; Japan (NTSC) and PAL measurements are represented by 0 IRE. See NTSC; PAL.
  18. blanking
    The black border around the edges of a raw video image. This is the image created by the video camera CCDs--the photosensitive receptors that translate the lens image into digital information. The very edge of the picture is usually worthless. These black pixels should be cropped out of your image if you plan to composite it over the top of other footage.
  19. blend modes / transfer modes
    The methods used to combine overlapping elements. Blend modes use different mathematical formulas to combine the pixels, creating different effects between the elements.
  20. bluescreen
    A solid blue background place behind a subject and photographed so that later the subject can be extracted and composited onto another image. See greenscreen.
  21. Broadcast Safe
    The range of color that can be broadcast free of distortion, according to the NTSC standards, with maximum allowable video at 100 IRE units and digital black at 0 IRE, or analog black at 7.5 IRE units.
  22. cache
    An area of the computer's memory (RAM) dedicated to storing still images and digital movies in preparation for real-time playback.
  23. Canvas
    The window in Motion in which you can view your edited sequence.
  24. center point
    Defines a clip's location in the X/Y coordinate space in the Canvas.
  25. chroma
    The color information contained in a video signal consisting of hue (the color itself) and saturation (intensity). See hue; saturation.
  26. chroma-keying
    Electronically matting or inserting an image from one camera into the picture produced by another. The subject to be inserted is shot against a solid color background, and signals from the two sources are then merged. See keying.
  27. clip
    A media file that may consist of video, audio, graphics, or any similar content that can be imported into Motion.
  28. clipping
    Distortion that occurs during the playback or recording of digital audio due to an overly high level.
  29. codec
    Short for compression/decompression. A program used to compress and decompress data such as audio and video files.
  30. color correction
    A process in which the color of objects is evened out so that all shots in a given scene match.
  31. color depth
    The possible range of colors that can be used in a movie or image. Higher color depths provide a wider range of colors but also require more disk space for a given image size. Broadcast video is generally 24-bit, with 8 bits of color information per channel. Motion works natively with 8 bits per channel of red, green, and blue.
  32. color matching
    Making the color of one shot correspond with that of another.
  33. component video
    A type of analog video signal where the luminance and chrominance signals are recorded separately, thereby providing better video quality. The signal can be recorded in an analog form (Y, R-y, B-y) as in a Beta SP, or in a digital form (Y, Cr, Cb), as in a Digital Betacam.
  34. composite
    The result of combining many different elements--some moving, some still. As a verb it refers to the process of combining these elements, or layers; as a noun it refers to the final resulting image. It's also sometimes referred to as a comp. In visual-effects work, the idea of a composite is to create a single image, which presents the illusion that all the elements were captured by a single camera filming the scene. In motion graphics, the concern isn't so much to convince the audience that everything was shot "in camera" as it is to present a stylistic and coherent blend of elements. See layers.
  35. composite video
    A type of analog video signal that combines all chroma and luma information into a single waveform running through a single pair of wires. This can result in analog "artifacts" affecting the quality of the video signal. See chroma; luma.
  36. compression
    The process by which video, graphics and audio files are reduced in size. The reduction in the size of a video file through the removal of perceptually redundant image data is referred to as a lossy compression scheme. A lossless compression scheme uses a mathematical process and reduces the file size by consolidating redundant information without discarding it. Compression is irrelevant with clips imported into the Motion Canvas, since all clips are decoded into fully uncompressed frames before caching to system RAM. Compression is, however, a consideration in the final export of a composition to disk. See codec.
  37. contrast
    The difference between the lightest and darkest values in an image. High-contrast images have a large range of values from the darkest shadow to the lightest highlight. Low-contrast images have a narrower range of values, resulting in a "flatter" look.
  38. cut
    The simplest type of an edit, where one clip ends and the next begins without any transition.
  39. cutaway
    A shot that is related to the current subject and occurs in the same time frame--for instance, an interviewer's reaction to what is being said in an interview or a shot to cover a technically bad moment.
  40. data rate
    The speed at which data can be transferred, often described in megabytes per second (MBps). The higher a video file's data rate, the higher quality it will be, but it will require more system resources (processor speed, hard-disk space, and performance). Some codes allow you to specify a maximum data rate for a movie during render.
  41. decibel
    (dB) A unit of measure for the loudness of audio.
  42. decompression
    The process of creating a viewable image for playback from a compressed video, graphics, or audio file. Compare with compression.
  43. desaturate
    To remove color from a clip. Desaturation of 100 percent results in a grayscale image.
  44. dissolve
    A transition between two video clips in which the second one fades up over the top of the first one, eventually obscuring it.
  45. drop-frame timecode
    NTSC timecode that skips ahead in time by two frame numbers each minute, except for minutes ending in 0, so that the end timecode total agrees with the actual elapsed clock time. Although timecode numbers are skipped, actual video frames are not skipped. See timecode.
  46. drop shadow
    An effect that creates an artificial shadow behind an image or text.
  47. dub
    To make a copy of an analog tape to the same type of format.
  48. DV
    (digital video) A standard for a specific digital video format created by a consortium of camcorder vendors, which uses Motion JPEG video at 720 x 480 resolution at 29.97 frames per second (NTSC) or 720 x 546 resolution at 25 fps (PAL), stored at a bit rate of 25 MB per second at a compression of 4:1:1.
  49. DVCAM
    A standard-definition digital videotape recorder format that records an 8-bit, 5:1 compressed component video signal with 4:1:1 color sampling. Recorded using 1/4-inch tape. Supports two tracks of audio with 16-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling, or four tracks of audio with 12-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling.
  50. DVCPRO
    Panasonic's native DV (digital video) component format that records an 8-bit, 5:1 compressed component video signal using 4:1:1 color sampling (PAL uses 4:2:0). This format supports two tracks of audio with 16-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling, or four tracks of audio with 12-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling. DVCPRO adds a longitudinal analog audio cue track and a control track to improve editing performance and user-friendliness in linear editing operations.
  51. dynamic range
    The difference, in decibels, between the loudest and softest parts of a recording.
  52. effects
    A general term used to describe filters and behaviors added to an object in Motion.
  53. envelope
    The visual curve of an audio waveform's pan or level. Essentially the same as a keyframe curve (the term envelope coming from the audio engineering world; the term curve coming from the digital animation world). See pan.
  54. fade
    The process of transitioning an object from fully transparent to fully opaque, or vice versa.
  55. favorite
    A custom effect that is used frequently. You can create favorites from any element or group of elements in your Layers tab.
  56. field
    Half of an interlaced video frame consisting of the odd or the even scan lines.
  57. FireWire
    Apple's trademark name for its implementation of the IEEE 1394 protocol used to connect external hard drives, cameras, and other digital devices to computers. It provides a fast interface to move large video and audio files to the computer's hard drive. FireWire exists as two standards: FireWire 400 and FireWire 800. FireWire 800 has twice the bandwidth of the traditional FireWire 400 and uses a different hardware connector.
  58. frame
    A single still image from either video or film. For video, each frame is made up of two interlaced fields. See interlaced video.
  59. frame blending
    A process of inserting blended frames in place of frames that have been duplicated in clips with slow motion, to make them play back more smoothly. Frame blending is available in the Scrub filter, part of the registration incentive pack of plug-ins.
  60. frame rate
    The speed at which the individual images making up a moving sequence play back. It's stated in terms of frames per second (fps). Film in 16mm or 35mm is usually shot at 24 fps; NTSC video is 29.97 fps; PAL video is 25 fps. HD can have several different frame rates.
  61. frequency
    The number of times a sound or signal vibrates each second, measured in cycles per second, or hertz. Audio recordings are made up of a vast collection of waveforms, using many different frequencies of sound. Each frequency in a recording is associated with an audio pitch. The frequencies of an audio recording can be changed to disguise a voice or to clean up an unwanted noise.
  62. gain
    In video, the level of white in a video picture; in audio, the loudness of an audio signal.
  63. gamma
    A curve that describes how the middle tones of an image appear. Gamma is a nonlinear function often confused with brightness or contrast. Changing the value of the gamma affects midtones while mostly leaving the whites and blacks of the image unaltered. Gamma adjustment is often used to compensate for differences between footage acquisition formats.
  64. garbage matte
    A matte that removes unwanted objects from an image.
  65. generators
    Clips that are synthesized (or generated) by Motion. Generators can be used as different kinds of backgrounds and elements for visual design.
  66. GPU
    (graphics processing unit) The central processor inside a modern computer graphics card.
  67. gradient
    A generated image that changes smoothly from one color to another across the image.
  68. grading
    The process of color-correcting footage to achieve a desired look.
  69. greenscreen
    A solid green background placed behind a subject and photographed so that later the subject can be extracted and composited into another image. See also bluescreen.
  70. Hi8
    A high-end consumer analog videotape format that has quality between that of VHS and DV.
  71. high definition
    (HD) High definition was created to increase the amount of pixels onscreen (a higher definition) as well as to solve many of the frame rate and cadence problems between film and video. There are two main types of HD footage. The highest is 1080, with a native resolution of 1920x1080. The other is 720, which has a native resolution of 1280x720. Both formats can have different frame rates and can be either progressive or interlaced.
  72. high-key images
    Images that are made up of mostly light values.
  73. histogram
    A window that displays the relative strength of all luminance values in a video frame, from black to super white. It is useful for comparing two clips in order to match their brightness values more closely. Available in the Levels filter.
  74. hue
    A specific color or pigment, such as red.
  75. In point
    The first frame of an object to be displayed in the Canvas.
  76. Insert edit
    To insert a clip into an existing sequence into the Timeline, which automatically moves the other clips (or remaining frames of a clip) to the right to make room for it. An Insert edit does not replace existing material.
  77. interlaced video
    A video scanning method that first scans the odd picture lines (field 1) and then scans the even picture lines (field 2), which merges them into one single frame of video. Used in standard-definition video.
  78. jiggle
    To move a parameter away from its current value, then move it back to that original value. Used to force Motion to create a keyframe in Record Animation mode.
  79. jog
    To move forward or backward through your video one frame at a time.
  80. JPEG
    (Joint Photographic Experts Group) A popular image file format that lets you create highly compressed graphics files. The amount of compression used can be varied. Less compression results in a higher-quality image.
  81. jump cut
    A cut in which an abrupt change occurs between two shots, with no continuity from one to the other.
  82. keyframe
    A point on the Timeline where a specific parameter value has been set. Motion interpolates between keyframes to create in-between frames.
  83. keying
    The process of creating a mask (key) to eliminate a specific background area in order to composite foreground elements against a different background. See chroma-keying.
  84. layers
    Containers that group several objects in a Motion project. Layers can be nested inside other layers. Filters and behaviors applied to a layer will affect all the elements contained within it. Known in other applications as precompositions.
  85. letterbox
    Describes when video is displayed to fit within a standard 4:3 monitor, resulting in a black bar at the top and the bottom of the picture.
  86. linear editing
    A video-editing style in which a program is edited together by copying shots from the original source tapes to a master tape, one by one. Because the assembly is linear, any changes made to an earlier point on the tape result in the rest of the edited tape having to be reassembled from that point forward. See nonlinear editing.
  87. low-key images
    Images that are made up of mostly dark values.
  88. luma (luminance)
    Short for luminance. A value describing the brightness information of the video signal without color (chroma). Equivalent to a color television broadcast viewed on a black-and-white television set.
  89. Luma Key
    A filter used to key out a luminance value, creating a matte based on the brightest or darkest area of an image. Keying out a luminance value works best when your clip has a large discrepancy in exposure between the areas you want to key out and the foreground images you want to preserve. See keying and matte.
  90. markers
    Indicators that can be placed on a clip or globally in a project to help you find a specific location while you edit. Can be used to sync action between two clips, identify beats of music, mark a reference word from a narrator, and so on.
  91. mask
    An image, clip, or shape used to define areas of transparency in another clip. Acts like an external alpha channel. A mask is an application of a matte.
  92. master shot
    A single, long shot of dramatic action from which shorter cuts, such as close-ups, and medium shots are taken in order to fill out the story.
  93. matte
    An effect that uses information in one layer of video to affect another layer. Mattes are useful when you want to use one clip to selectively hide or reveal part of another--for example, to reveal parts of a video layer with a round spotlight shape. Matte filters can be used by themselves to mask out areas of a clip, or to create alpha channel information for a clip in order to make a transparent border around the clip that can be composited against other layers. See alpha channel.
  94. media file
    A generic term for elements such as movies, sounds, and pictures.
  95. midtones
    The middle brightness range of an image. Not the very brightest part, not the very darkest part.
  96. mini-Timeline
    The small timeline at the base of the Canvas that solos the timing events for the selected object, filter, mask, or behavior.
  97. mono audio
    A type of sound in which audio channels are taken from a tape and mixed together into a single track, using equal amounts of audio channels 1 and 2.
  98. motion blur
    An effect that blurs any clip with keyframed motion applied to it, similar to blurred motion recorded by a camera.
  99. motion path
    A path that appears in the Canvas showing the path a clip will travel based on keyframe points that are applied to the clip.
  100. motion tracking
    A technique that involves selecting a particular region of an image and analyzing its motion over time.
  101. MPEG
    (Moving Picture Experts Group) A group of compression standards for video and audio, which includes MPEG-1, MPEG-2, and MPEG-4.
  102. MPEG-4
    A global multimedia standard based on the QuickTime file format, delivering scalable, high-quality audio and video streams over a wide range of bandwidths, ranging from cell phone to broadband, that also supports 3D objects, sprites, text, and other media types.
  103. nest
    To place a layer into another layer so that it effectively acts as a single object in the new layer.
  104. non-drop frame timecode
    NTSC timecode in which frames are numbered sequentially and run at 30 fps. NTSC's frame rate, however, is actually 29.97 fps; therefore, non-drop frame timecode is off by 3 seconds and 18 frames per hour in comparison to actual elapsed time.
  105. noninterlaced video
    The standard representation of images on a computer, also referred to as progressive scan. The monitor displays the image by drawing each line, continuously one after the other, from top to bottom.
  106. nonlinear editing
    A video-editing process that uses computer hard disks to random-access media. It allows the editor to reorganize clips very quickly or make changes to sections without having to re-create the entire program.
  107. nonlinear editor
    (NLE) An editing platform (usually on a computer) used to perform nonlinear editing.
  108. nonsquare pixel
    A pixel whose height is different from its width. An NTSC pixel is taller than it is wide, and a PAL pixel is wider than it is tall.
  109. NTSC
    (National Television Systems Committee) The standard of color TV broadcasting used mainly in North America, Mexico, and Japan, consisting of 525 lines per frame, 29.97 frames per second, and 720x486 pixels per frame (720x480 for DV). See PAL.
  110. NTSC legal
    The range of color that can be broadcast free of distortion according to the NTSC standards, with maximum allowable video at 100 IRE units and black at 7.5 IRE units.
  111. offset tracking
    A tracking process that is used when your reference pattern becomes obscured. With offset tracking, the track point follows the same path, but a new search region/reference pattern is used to acquire the tracking data.
  112. opacity
    The degree to which an image is transparent, allowing images behind to show through. An opacity of 0 percent means an object is invisible; an opacity of 100 percent means the object is completely opaque.
  113. Out point
    The last frame of an object to be displayed in the Canvas.
  114. overscan
    The part of the video frame that cannot be seen on a TV or video monitor. Broadcast video is an overscan medium, meaning that the recorded frame size is larger than the viewable area on a video monitor. The overscan part of the picture is usually hidden behind the plastic bezel on the edge of a television set.
  115. Overwrite edit
    An edit where the clip being edited into a sequence replaces an existing clip. The duration of the sequence remains unchanged.
  116. PAL
    (Phase Alternating Line) This system is the European color TV broadcasting standard, consisting of 625 lines per frame, running at 25 frames per second and 720x576 pixels per frame. See NTSC.
  117. pan
    To rotate a camera left or right without changing its position. The term has been adapted in computer graphics to refer to movement of individual video elements.
  118. PICT
    The native still-image file format for Macintosh developed by Apple Computer.
  119. pixel
    Short for picture element. One dot in a video or still image.
  120. pixel aspect ratio
    The width-to-height ratio for the pixels that compose an image. Pixels on computer screens and in high-definition video signals are square (1:1 ratio). Pixels in standard-definition video signals are nonsquare.
  121. playhead
    A navigational element on the scrubber bar that shows the current frame in the Timeline, Canvas, Keyframe Editor, or Audio Editor.
  122. postproduction
    The phase of film, video, and audio editing that begins after all the footage is shot.
  123. premultiplication
    The process of multiplying the RGB channels in an image by their alpha channel.
  124. preset
    A portion of a Motion project saved into the Favorites section of the Library.
  125. QuickTime
    Apple's cross-platform multimedia technology. Widely used for editing, compositing, CD-ROM, Web video, and more.
  126. QuickTime streaming
    Apple's streaming-media addition to the QuickTime architecture. Used for viewing QuickTime content in real time on the Web.
  127. real time
    Refers to the ability to play back video content during preview at exactly the same frame rate as the final intended output. Can also refer to the ability to update parameters and instantly see the result of the change.
  128. redo
    To revers an undo, which restores the last change made to a project.
  129. render
    The process by which the computer calculates final frames for a project. In Motion, the rendering takes place in the GPU of the graphics card.
  130. RGB
    An abbreviation for red, green, and blue, which are the three primary colors that make up a color video image.
  131. rotoscoping
    A frame-by-frame hand-painting technique to create imagery over time.
  132. safe zones
    The two sets of lines representing Action Safe and Title Safe areas in the Canvas. See Action Safe; Title Safe.
  133. sampling
    The process during which analog audio is converted into digital information. The sampling rate of an audio stream specifies how many samples are captured. Higher sample rates are able to reproduce higher-pitched sounds. Examples: 44.1 Kbytes, 48 Kbytes. Greater bit depths during sampling increase the dynamic range (changes in volume) of the audio.
  134. saturation
    The purity of color. As saturation is decreased, the color moves toward gray.
  135. scale
    An adjustable value that changes the overall size of a clip. The proportion of the image may or may not be maintained.
  136. scrub
    To move through a clip or sequence by dragging the playhead. Scrubbing is used to find a particular point or frame or to hear the audio.
  137. SECAM
    (Sequential Couleur Avec Memoir) The French television standard for playback. As with PAL, the playback rate is 25 fps and the frame size is 720x546. Primarily a broadcast medium; editing for SECAM broadcasts is still performed in PAL.
  138. sequence
    An edited assembly of video, audio, or graphics clips.
  139. SMPTE
    (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) The organization responsible for establishing various broadcast video standards, like the SMPTE standard timecode for video playback.
  140. snapping
    The process by which the playhead or an object in the Canvas "snaps," or moves directly, to guides, markers, or edit points when it is moved close to them.
  141. solo
    The process of temporarily disabling all objects other than the selected objects in order to improve real-time performance.
  142. sound byte
    A short excerpt taken from an interview clip.
  143. square pixel
    A pixel that has the same height as width. Computer monitors have square pixels, but NTSC and PAL video do not.
  144. stabilization
    The process of selecting a particular region of an image and analyzing its motion over time. Once analyzed, the motion data is inverted and applied to the clip, causing it to become stable. Clips need to be stabilized for a variety of reasons, from weave created by an unsteady camera gate to a shaky camera move.
  145. standard definition
    The term used to differentiate traditional television broadcast signals from those of new high-definition formats. Standard-definition broadcast signals are usually 720x486 (for NTSC) or 720x576 (for PAL). See high definition.
  146. stereo audio
    Sound that is separated into two channels, one carrying the sounds for the right ear and one for the left ear. Stereo pairs are linked and are always edited together. Audio-level changes are automatically made to both channels at the same time.
  147. straight cut
    An edit in which both the video and audio tracks are cut together to the Timeline.
  148. streaming
    The delivery of media over an intranet or over the Internet.
  149. super black
    Black that is darker than the levels allowed by the CCIR 601 engineering standard for video. The CCIR 601 standard for black is 7.5 IRE in the United States and 0 IRE for PAL and NTSC in Japan.
  150. super white
    A value or degree of white that is brighter than the accepted normal value of 100 IRE allowed by the CCIR 601 standard.
  151. talent
    An actor in a clip.
  152. thumbnails
    Small square icons displaying a frame of the represented clip.
  153. TIFF
    (Tagged Image File Format) A widely used bitmapped graphics file format that handles monochrome, grayscale, and 8- and 24-bit color.
  154. tilt
    To pivot the camera up and down, which causes the image to move up or down in the frame.
  155. time remapping / variable speed
    The process of changing the speed of playback of a clip over time. The equivalent of varying the crank of a film camera. Available in Motion via the Scrub filter, part of the registration incentive plug-in pack.
  156. timecode
    A unique numbering system of electronic signals laid onto each frame of videotape that is used to identify specific frames of video. Each frame of video is labeled with hours, minutes, seconds, and frames (01:00:00:00). Timecode can be drop frame, non-drop frame, time of day (TOD), or EBU (European Broadcast Union--for PAL projects).
  157. Timeline
    A window in Motion for displaying and editing the timing events for all objects, filters, and behaviors.
  158. Title Safe
    Part of the video image that is guaranteed to be visible on all televisions. The Title Safe area is the inner 80 percent of the screen. To prevent text in your video from being hidden by the edge of a TV set, you should restrict any titles or text to the Title Safe area.
  159. tracking
    The process of analyzing the motion of one clip and applying that motion to another clip.
  160. tracks
    Layers in the Timeline that contain the audio or video clips in a project.
  161. trimming
    To precisely add or subtract frames from the In or Out point of a clip. Trimming is used to fine-tune an edited sequence by carefully adjusting many edits in small ways.
  162. underscan
    To display video on a computer or video monitor with a black border around the edge, so that no part of the frame is hidden from the viewer (for example, the Action Safe area is not cropped out, as it would be on a normal television set). Computers display underscan video.
  163. undo
    A feature that allows you to cancel out the last change made.
  164. Vectorscope
    A window in Final Cut Pro that graphically displays the color components of a video signal, precisely showing the range of colors in the signal and measuring their intensity and hue. It can be used to calibrate the color in video signals being captured from videotape, as well as to compare two clips for purposes of color correction. Motion projects can be referenced in Final Cut Pro to take advantage of its Vectorscope.
  165. video-in-text effect
    When a video image is matted inside the shape of text.
  166. vignette
    A popular photographic effect in which the photo gradually darkens around the edges, usually in an oval shape.
  167. VTR / VCR
    (videotape recorder/videocassette recorder) A tape machine used for recording pictures and sound on videotape.
  168. VU meter
    (Volume Unit meter) An analog meter for monitoring audio levels.
  169. WAV
    A sound file format developed by Microsoft and IBM.
  170. white balance
    To make adjustments to a video signal being recorded in order to reproduce white as true white. For example, if the white in a shot is too green due to fluorescent lighting, white balancing adds enough magenta to make the white appear neutral.
  171. white level
    An analog video signal's amplitude for the lightest white in a picture, represented by IRE units.
  172. wide-screen
    A format for shooting and projecting a movie in theaters in which the original footage doesn't get cut off because of the 4:3 aspect ratio. With the advent of high-definition video, wide-screen 16:9 video is coming into more popular use. See 16:9.
  173. wide-screen mask filter
    Adds black bars across the top and bottom of a 4:3 image that crop it to a 16:9 format.
  174. x-axis
    Refers to the x coordinate in Cartesian geometry. The x coordinate describes horizontal placement in motion effects.
  175. y-axis
    Refers to the y coordinate in Cartesian geometry. The y coordinate describes vertical placement in motion effects.
  176. YUV
    The three-channel PAL video signal with one luminance (Y) and two chrominance color difference signals (UV). It is often misapplied to refer to NTSC video, which is YIQ.
  177. z-axis
    Refers to the z coordinate in Cartesian geometry. The z coordinate describes perpendicular placement in motion effects.
  178. zoom
    To change the magnification of your Canvas or Timeline.