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- multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes
- ingest food and digest internally
- cells lack cell walls
- unique cell junctions
- collagen and proteoglycans in extracellular matrix
-most have tissues
-most capable of movement
- haploid sperm fertilizes larger nonmotile haploid egg, forms diploid zygote
-embryonic development regulated by Hox genes; includes cleavage and gastrulation
characteristics of animals
what regulates embryonic development in animals?
Hox genes, includes cleavage and gastrulation
what is in the extracellular matrix of animals?
collagen and proteoglycans
what is a rapid cell division with no growth of cells between the division?
what is the solid ball of cells in cleavage?
what does "coel" mean?
what is the hollow ball of cells?
what is the formation of germ layers?
what is the cavity formed in the blastula?
what are the 2 major groups of triploblastic animals?
protostomes and deuterostomes
in what animal do no germ layers or tissues develop?
what are the 3 types of symmetry in animals?
asymmetrical, radial, bilateral
what types of animals are asymmetrical?
placozoans and many sponges
what symmetry cuts any plane along main body axis and divides the animal into similar halves?
3 examples of animals with radial symmetry?
cnidarians, ctenophores, echinoderms
what type of symmetry has only 1 plane through anterior- posterior midline divides animal into mirror image halves?
which type of symmetry is strongly correlated with cephalization?
where are the body cavities located?
they are a fluid filled cavity between the digestive tract and outer body wall
3 types of body cavities?
Acoelomate, Pseuodocoelomate, Coelomate
what has no fluid- filled body cavity?
what is an example of Acoelomate?
solid mesenchyme flatworm
what is a fluid filled cavity that lies between the mesoderm and endoderm?
what is an example of Pseudocoelomate?
rotifers and nematodes
what is a fluid filled body cavity enclosed completely within the mesoderm?
examples of coelomate?
ectoprocts, nemerteans, phoronids, brachiopods, annelids, mollusks, and arthropods
what are 2 functions of the body cavities?
cushions suspend organs, acts as hydrostatic skeleton against which muscles can work (soft bodied animals)
What improves control of movement and may not be apparent externally?
what are the external appendages specialized for?
- -capturing prey
- -chewing food
- -sensing environment
what are 2 feeding strategies used by animals?
filter feeders, herbivores
what filters small organisms and organic molecules from their environment, may be motile or sessile
what are some examples of filter feeders?
christmas tree worm, sponge, flamingo, baleen whale
what feeds on plants; usually have long, complex guts