CJ 301 Intro to Forensic Science

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CJ 301 Intro to Forensic Science
2012-04-17 22:25:35

Test 3 Study Guide
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  1. What are the two locations of friction ridge skin?
    Palmer surfaces of the hands and Plantar surfaces of the feet.
  2. Friction ridge skin forms on the hands and feet during blank; and barring injury, it does not change during a person’s lifetime.
    fetal development
  3. Friction ridge skin is made up of blank.
    ridges and furrows
  4. Blank developed the Henry Classification System which is an alpha-numerical system of grouping, filing and searching a large database of fingerprint cards.
    Sir Edward Henry
  5. Blank introduced Galton Details, which are known as ridge characteristics, and proved the permenance and uniqueness of fingerprints.
    Sir Francis Galton
  6. The history of fingerprints can be dated back to which of the following:
    stone carvings, clay pottery, and Chinese clay finger seals.
  7. What are the three fingerprint pattern types?
    Loops, Arches, and Whorls. (L.A.W.)
  8. Fingerprints that are developed on a blank surface will remain on that surface and will not be absorbed (i.e. glass, metal, plastic, etc.).
  9. Fingerprints that are developed on a blank surface will be absorbed into that surface and can last for years (i.e. paper, cardboard, etc.).
  10. Blank fingerprints are defined as present but not visible or evident.
  11. Give at least three methods for developing fingerprints and describe how each method works. There are eleven development methods listed in your PowerPoint.
    Cyanoacrylate (super glue fuming) will develop fingerprints when the fumes harden the latent print residues. Amido Black is a dye stain that stains the blood proteins in a bloody fingerprint. Sticky Side Powder is a dye that is used for fingerprints on the sticky side of tapes. Crystal Violet (Gentian Violet) dyes fatty substances in fingerprints Crystal Violet on adhesive tapes. Ninhydrin reacts to amino acids in fingerprints.
  12. The blank scans and digitally encodes fingerprints so that they may be classified and retrieved through high-speed computer processing.
    Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)
  13. A blank is a snapshot in time showing a relationship between the orientation of the firearm and the object that was struck
  14. When a fired bullet passes all the way through an object, it has blank that object.
  15. When a fired bullet enters and stays in an object, it has blank that object.
  16. A blank is a shallow angle impact in which the fired bullet does not penetrate or perforate an object.
  17. What are four tools that are used in trajectory analysis?
    Protractor, Angle Finder, Laser, Rods, Rulers, Strings.
  18. When a fired bullet impacts an object, its trajectory is usually altered in some way. For this reason, we must use a blank of variance.
    +/- 5 degrees
  19. Blank is the discipline of forensic science which has its primary concern to determine if a bullet, cartridge case, or other ammunition component was fired by a particular firearm.
    Firearms Identification
  20. Blank is the discipline of forensic science which has its primary concern to determine if a toolmark was produced by a particular tool.
    Toolmark Identification
  21. Blank is the study of a projectile in flight.
  22. List at least four types of examinations that the Firearm and Toolmark Section performs.
    Firearm Examinations, Toolmark Examinations, Distance Determination, Restoration of Serial Numbers, Physical Match, Shooting Scene Reconstructions/ Trajectory Analysis, and Footwear and Tire Prints.
  23. By WV State Law, a blank is defined as any weapon which will expel a projectile by action of an explosion.
  24. A blank is a single unit of ammunition consisting of the cartridge case, primer, and propellant with or without one or more projectiles.
    loaded cartridge
  25. A blank is a bullet which has been fired from a firearm.
    fired bullet
  26. A blank is a cartridge case which has been fired in a firearm.
    fired cartridge case
  27. The following are class characteristics of a fired bullet :
    caliber, weight, direction of twist (left or right), number and width of land and groove impressions.
  28. If an officer does not have a suspected firearm in their case and only submits a fired bullet to the laboratory for examination, what can a firearm examiner tell the officer based on the examination of the fired bullet? Blank that it could have been fired from. Cannot tell you exactly what firearm fired that bullet.
    Possible make, model, and caliber of the firearm
  29. Blank such as striations (scratches) in the land impressions of a fired bullet are unique to one particular firearm, and that fired bullet can be identified to that firearm.
    Individual characteristics
  30. List at least four types of microscopic marks left on a fired cartridge case when fired in a firearm.
    Breechface, Firing pin, Firing pin aperture mark, extractor, ejector, magazine lip marks, chamber.
  31. Blank inside a firearm barrel is composed of lands and grooves which impart a spin to a bullet to stabilize it during flight.
  32. A blank is the harder of two objects which when brought into contact with each other, results in the softer one being marked.
  33. The two types of toolmarks include?
    Impressed and Striated.
  34. Blank is the sub-discipline that uses polishing techniques and chemical treatment with acids to restore a serial number for visualization.
    Serial number restoration
  35. Blank is the sub-discipline to determine whether two or more objects were at one time one entity.
    Physical/Fracture matching
  36. A blank is the process of determining the distance from the firearm muzzle to the target based upon gunshot residue patterns deposited on the target.
    distance determination
  37. When examining gunshot residue patterns, pattern size blank with distance and pattern density blank with distance.
    increases; decreases
  38. Distance determination chemical testing includes the testing for vaporous lead or particulate lead by performing a blank test, which gives a purple colored positive reaction.
    Sodium Rhodizonate
  39. Distance determination chemical testing includes the testing for burnt gunpowder particles (nitrites) by performing a blank test, which gives an orange colored positive reaction.
  40. Distance determination results will be given in the form of a blank instead of stating a specific distance. For example, the report may be worded as the gunshot residue pattern found on the evidence was fired at a distance greater than 6 inches but less than 18 inches.
  41. Blank is the product of direct physical contact of an item such as shoe or tire resulting in the transfer and retention of characteristics of that item.
    Impression evidence
  42. The two types of impression evidence include:
    two-dimensional and three-dimensional
  43. Give the definitions of two-dimensional impressions and three dimensional impressions along with one example of each. Do NOT just give two-dimensional impressions are length and width (and LxWxD for 3-D), write out how each type of impression is made. And for the examples – 2-D: dust impression on paper, tile, or bloody shoe print on carpet, etc. 3-D: shoe print or tire track in mud, snow, sand, etc.
    An object like the sole of a shoe will leave a two dimensional impression on a hard surface such as a tiled floor. The impression comes from static charge on the sole transferring particles from the sole to the surface

    A three-dimensional impression is made when the surface over which the shoe passed was soft and the sole actually sank into it.
  44. What is the recovery method for all types of impression evidence, two-dimensional and three-dimensional?
  45. List at least four things that must be done when taking exam quality photographs.
  46. An blank uses a high-voltage power source to create a static electrical charge that allows the transfer of a dust impression from the surface to a special black lifting film.
    electrostatic dust lifter
  47. A blank recovers a dust or residue impression from a surface with a gelatin lifter.
    gel lift
  48. When recovering two-dimensional blood impressions, these impressions may be enhanced with two types of chemicals blank or Leuco Crystal Violet.
    Amido Black
  49. Another chemical enhancement technique for blood impressions that produces a chemiluminescence reaction (production of light) is blank.
  50. Three-dimensional footwear or tire track impressions can be recovered by casting the impression with blank.
    dental stone
  51. Blank is an aerosol wax used to coat the surface of a snow impression prior to casting.
    Snow print wax
  52. When comparing known test impressions from the suspect’s shoes to the evidence impressions recovered at the crime scene, the examiner compares two areas:
    class and individual characteristics.
  53. Class characteristics are features that are shared by two or more shoes or tires. What are the three class characteristics that are examined in the comparative?