Blacks allowed to enlist but were descriminated by the system PURPOSLY
The result is the NAACP challenged this by trying to lobby Tryman in persuading him succesfully.
Truman becamse the FIRST president in ordering an END to discrimination in the military.
This resulted in a NATION wide effect that rippled down.
A top Attorney fro NAACP who took on their cases.
One in specific, UT LAW SCHOOL.
Problem: It was completely segregated by state law through a system wide policy.
Thus Marshall not just sue school but TEXAS
Result: Marshall wins, Law school integrated by decision of Supreme Court and ruling becomes NATION-wide.
Purpose: of Marshall taking on this case was to take one brick down at a time against abolishing segregation and discrimination.
Eisenhower 1952- 1960
List events that occured.
Brown vs Board of Education
Little Rock Arkansas
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Brown vs Board of Education
Case taken to court by NAACP with Marshall as representative.
Result: Supreme Court ruled in favor of Brown, NAACP win, public schools MUST integrate blacks
Reaction: was only in the SOUTH that was taken over by racism who openly rejected the ruling impacting the moderates.
Little Rock Arkansas
Example of reaction to supreme court rulling.
The local black community and school board started the integrating process inacted by court ruling BUT the AK government came in and prohibited the joining.
The AK government had alwasy been a MODERATE until the Brown case so the moderates took on the side of the racists in the south.
Ike tried to be invasive not taking NAACP or government side and took the round about answering to his opinion on the situation.
Though Ike isn't a racists, he was with the military all his life where it was just understood white where superior to blacks and that was just what he was used to..
Public Opinion response
Had different opinion than Ike. Nation-wide people were outraged by government on how racists he is. Most of the public supported courts decision. Thus the public forced Ike to act and eventually he did by sending the army in Arkansas.
The army was sent to protect black citizens going to the schools because of the racial physical violence that could occur.
This is the only case that Ike took action, meaning other school districts remained segregated and controlled by racists segreations in this ear.
The south took the advantage and thought if they don't take such open rejection to integration laws Ike wouldn't take action if they conducted their racism descretely.
Thus this case only integrated little Rock school and no where else.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Occured in Alabama capital resulting in lots of publicity.
Began with Rosa Parks challenging segregation seating on buses. She is then arrested because it is a system-wide enforced city law when she doesn't give up her seat.
Rosa Parks is a leader of her local chapter of NAACP and begins to protest her purpesful arrest by boycotting the buses to suppoert her challenge of the city government policy.
MLK Jr at this time emerged from the boycott as a new leader at the age of 26 with no fame our power.Thus MLK didnt cause the movement but became the leader AFTER the boycott was already in place.
At this time he had been a pastor and lived in Montgomery for only one year. Thus he became a leader over a diverse group. This was in part due to his ability to speak to black bocotters and the white community winning support on both sides.
The white government response was to try and break the boycott by arresting blacks specifically MLK on pety offenses if an offense at all with the also use of violence. For example, Kings patio was bombed and no police took action.
This boycott lasted over a year showing MLKs talent in keeping the moral up and his leadership up.
After a year the supreme court ruled segregation illegal/unconstit. in Montgomery.
Kinds Ideas Conclusion
King was a christian using his religion as an influence in his ideas as what god believes whats right and wrong.
Civil Rights movement is a Christian movement.
U of Alabama
March on Washington
It was a spontaneou grassroots effort not organized by a leader or local people.
It occured in Nashville involving 600 students black and white .
These people carried emergency number in preparation to be arrested.
The purpose was to sit in a segregated resturant, movie theatre, etc and silently make a point.
The were courageous because they knew people could and would react dramatically to their rejection to leave until they were arrested
The movement of students spread fast and the law felt violence would vanish there sit ins BUT rounds and rounds of students replaced the arrested students.
The conclusion was that sit-ins everywhere failed because of violence and arrest.
An effort to integrate long distance buses
Response: whites used violence and police arrests against nonviolent activists.
The political administration responded slowly almost trying to avoid the situation.
Yet the violence was photographed thus greatly influenced public opinion so the admin was FORCED to act to protect the Freedom Rides.
Result: was successful because it target a broader public in due part because these riders dressed nice to project a certain image to certain types of people.
University of Alabama
State law demanded complete segregation of school.
Govenor George Wallce praised this segregation in a openly way stopping the school from wanting to integrate.
Response: JFK administration acted slow as well but eventually civil right movment was succescull and the school was intergrated.
March on Washington
MLK was a major leader in this
Purpose: was to put presure on the national government to do more FASTER and not avoid the obvious problems
Conclusion: MLK made his famous speech called "I have a dream"
JFK Assasination 1963
Warren Commission investigaed the assasination and sifted through the evidence and decided Lee Harvey Oswald killed JFK.
There were critics who believed that it was a conspiracy involving others.
LBJ becomes president after death of JFK
Act of 1964
Pres Election 1964
Act of 1965
1 Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi
Known as Freedom Summer where it was a state wide effort during the summer of 1963. White racists used violence against Civil Right leaders resulting in murders.
2 Civil RIghts Act of 1964
Will pass and 1)abolish discrimination in employment and work situatioins 2) abolished discrimination in customer relations like restaurants, stores, and buses
This results in the nonviolent sit-in movement successful
National P.O. makes law pass overwhelmingly showing they will enforce this law and that the societal perspective of white supremacy is a small faction limited to the south and the President and P.O. are the majority.
3 Presidental Election of 1964
LBJ runs for reelection campaigning he supports fair justice and equal treatment.
Barry Godwater was his opponent and campaigned against Civil RIghts Act to maintain seg/discrimination.
Conculsion: LBJ wins by a landslide because P.O wanted FREEDOM
4 Voting Rights Act of 1965
Passed immediatly after LBJ won the election.
It ensured national government would protect blacks when they voted against seg/discrim NOT give them the right they already had to vote.
Result: More blacks voted and voted overwhelmingly for democratic party
5 Thurgood Marshall
Apponited to Supreme court by LBJ became the FIRST black on Supreme Court who was a committed major leader in Civil Rights Movement.
Conclusion: By end of this period Civirl RIght movements were succesful resulting in major achievements.
Great Society= War on Poverty
Policy supported by LBJ
1 Medicare- Govt provide healthcare to SENIORS
2 Medicaid- Govt provide healthcare to POOR based on income
3 Headstart- Govt provide pre-k education to poor kids to get a headstart to 1st grade
Govt spent more money on thse programs but medicare recieved the most help.
This policy was considered liberal and conservatives fought against them.
Earl Warren- is chief justice and is known for being personable and having a unanimous court giving his influence of 20+ years the nickname "warren court"
Case- Required Prayer in public schools
District required teachers to lead prayer before class.
Ruling: unconstitutional to mandate but can pray voluntarily in non-disruptive way
Case- Censorship in state/local laws
State and local areas banned obscenity like porn.
Ruling: unconsititutional people have freedom to buy
Case- Legislative Districts
District boundaries remained the same despite population growth and movement.
Ruling:illegal established REAPPORTIONMENT where legal districts must have same portion of voters.
Result:helped suburb areas that boomed after WWII
Ruling: law enforcement must read your rights while being arrested
All decisions thought of as liberal. Conservatives disliked liberal court (warren) because?
Mexican Americans 1900-60s
1 MA had a low population of less than 1% in the US. MAs were isolated from mainstream America because barely located passed border
2 Immigration changed and increased after 1910 mostly because of economics