The most important reason for the shift some composers made to the Twelve-Tone System was that they discovered it to be a ________________________________ rather than a special __________________________________________.
compositional technique; musical style
Even though it is highly organized, why does serialist music appear random and chaotic?
The complex relationships in the music are often difficult to perceive.
Who was the foremost composer of aleatoric music?
List five characteristics of minimalist music:
steady pulse, clear tonality, insistent repetition of short melodic patterns, dynamic level, texture, and harmony tend to stay constant for fairly long stretches of time
Who wrote the minimalist opera "Einstein on the Beach"?
Besides promoting a conscious break with serialism, quotation music seeks to improve what?
communication between composer and listener
What did George Crumb title his song cycle?
Ancient Voices of Children
The artistic precision of much electronic music is possible by because it bypasses which element of traditional music?
Which composer celebrated the right to make new music with any and all sounds, calling it "the liberation of sound"?
What are microtones?
intervals smaller than the half step
What was the first jazz group to make recordings?
Dixieland Jazz Band
List 5 significant early jazz artists?
Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, Charlie Parker, and Miles Davis
What characteristics of West African music found their way into jazz?
an emphasis on improvisation, drumming, percussive sounds, complex rhythms, and call and response
What were the immediate American sources of jazz?
work songs, spirituals, gospel hymns, and dances like the cakewalk
Who was the "King of Ragtime"?
What is the basic form of the blues?
What instruments play the "basso continuo" of jazz?
What are smears, scoops, fall-offs, and shakes?
“smears” (gliding from one pitch to another), “scoops” (starting at a pitch lower than the intended pitch and swooping up to it), “falloffs” (performing a descending glissando from the final pitch of a phrase), and “shakes” (a very deliberate and exaggerated vibrato).
What is the heart of jazz performance?
What is swing?
when they combine a steady beat with a feeling of lilt, precision, and relaxed vitality
Who introduced "scat"?
Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong
short, repeated phrases
Who was the "King of Swing"?
List 3 other types of jazz.
Cool jazz, free jazz, jazz rock
List 3 sources of Broadway musicals.
operetta, vaudeville, and the revue
List at least 10 Broadway musicals.
The King and I, Fanny, My Fair Lady, Fiddler on the Roof, West Side Story, Hair, Jesus Christ Superstar, Cats, Phantom of the Opera, and Les Misérables
What is the source of the plot of West Side story?
choreographer Jerome Robbins first suggested to Leonard Bernstein that they collaborate on a modern version of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet set in the slums of New York
Rock was the convergence of which two American styles?
rhythm and blues and country and western
Name the first rock hit.
Rock Around the Clock
The "King" of rock and roll was ______________.
What record company made soul?
Who were the most influential of early rock performers?
What forms of rock emerged in the seventies?the eighties?
disco, country rock, reggae, funk, and punk; heavy metal, rap, hip-hop
a kind of rhythmic talking accompanied by a disk jockey who manipulated recordings on two turntables to create a collage of rhythmic effects