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Where is bile produced and utilized? (not same)
What is its function?
Function: emulification of fats.
Where does Bile travel (ducts), and join to form which duct?
Travels from the Liver through the Right and Left Hepatic Ducts.
Joins to form a Common Hepatic Duct.
Where is Bile stored?
Does the storage organ have a connection with the liver?
Stored in the Gall bladder.
NO connection w/ the Liver.
When the gallbladder contracts, where is bile excreted into?
The Common Bile Duct consists of what 2 ducts?
Excreted into the Cystic Duct.
- 1) Cystic duct
- 2) Common hepatic duct
The Common Bile Duct + the Pancreatic Duct is termed?
Sphincter muscles at the end of the Common Bile Duct close to cause bile to do what?
The opening of the ampulla inot the duodenum is termed?
Duodenal or heaptopancreatic Ampulla ("swelling").
Closing of the Sphincter causes bil to backfill into the gallbladder.
Opening of ampulla is the Duodenal Papilla ("nipple").
Enteroendocrine cells of duodenum produce what hormone?
What does this hormone cause?
Enteroendocrine cells of duodenum produce cholecystokinin (CCK).
CCK causes the Gall Bladder to contract, excreting bile into the duodenum.
The pancreas is similar to the size/shape of what?
Where is it located?
Located under the stomach.
What is the head and tail of the Pancreas in contact with?
Head of pancreas: in contact w/ the Duodenum
Tail of pancreas: extended freely towards the Spleen.
The Pancreas contains BOTH endocrine/exocrine cells.
What are Exocrine cells?
What are Endocrine cells?
Exocrine cells: Acinar cells excrete enzymes into a duct.
Endocrine cells: Secrete a hormone into the circulatory system.
In response to Secretin secreted from Enteroendocrine cells of Duodenum: (define the breakdown of each below)
Proteases: breakdown proteins --> polypeptides --> AA.
Amylases (carbohydrases): breakdown complex --> simple sugars.
Lipases: breakdwon fats (works w/ bile).
Nucleases: breakdown nuclear material - DNA, RNA.
Bicarbonate: buffer to neutralize acidic chyme from stomach.
What 2 hormones are secreted in response to blood glucose concentrations?
What is the function of the alpha (a) and beta (b) cells, and what are these 2 types of cells usually termed?
- Blood glucose concentrations.
- 1) Insulin
- 2) Glucagon
- a-cells: glucagon secreting
- b-cells: insulin secreting
Termed: Island of Langerhans
Endocrine cells (card 2)
What are the functions of:
- 1) escorts glucose from blood into cells
- 2) signals liver to store glucose
- 3) LOWERS blood glucose concentration.
- 1) signals liver to RELEASE stored glucose.
- 2) INCREASE the blood glucose concentration.
Consists of what 3 lobe and 4-sided lobe?
Which 2 lobes equal the LEFT lobe and why?
- 1) Right lobe
- 2) Left lobe
- 3) Caudate (tail of the liver) lobe
- 4) Quadrate (4-sided) lobe
Caudate & Quadrate Lobe = LEFT lobe b/c they share vessels & ducts.
What are the cells of the Liver, called? (hint: means "liver" + "cell")
Hepa = liver; cyte = cell --> Hepatocytes.
What are the major functions of the Hepatocytes?
- 1) Synthesis & secretion of bile.
- 2) Nutrient metabolism & storage
- 3) Vitamin storage
- 4) Toxin removal
Major functions: Hematological regulation (3).
- 1) Remove old RBCs
- 2) Convert the red bilirubin to green for bile.
- 3) Synthesize plasma proteins.
Major functions: Hepatocytes; require (2).
Which arteries carry O2 to the liver?
What carries nutrients to the liver?
What ducts carry bile away from the liver?
- 1) O2
- 2) Contact w/ nutrients & ducts to carry away bile.
Hepatic arteris and arterioles carry O2 to the liver. (hepa = liver)
Venules from the Hepatic portal Vein carry nutrients to the liver.
Hepatic ducts carry bile away from the liver.
What does the Portal Triad consist of?
Where are they found?
What is the entrance of portal triad into the liver? ("door to liver")
Portal triad: artery (arteriole), vein (venule), and duct.
Found in the corners of the hexagonal lobule.
Door to the liver: Porta Hepatis (entrance)
Where do the hepatic veins drain into?
*The liver itself has Caval Venous drainage.
Hepatic veins drain into the Inferior Vena Cava.
What are the functions of the Bile Canaliculi?
Many canaliculi join together to form what ducts?
What do Bile ducts form?
What do these form into?
Carry bile away from hepatocytes.
Many canaliculi join to form BILE ducts.
Bile ducts form RIGHT and LEFT hepatic ducts.
R/L hepatic ducts join to form the Common Hepatic Duct.
What are Kupffer cells?
Star-shaped macrophages in the sinusoids.