GEO Exam

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glee_anne
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148335
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GEO Exam
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2012-04-26 14:48:27
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Geology Final Exam
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spring 2012
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  1. According to the rules of biological nomenclature, which of the choices below is the correct scientific name for an African Lion?
    Panthera leo (italicized, captial first word, lower case second word)
  2. Overall, the fossil record indicated that life on Earth has ___ over time.
    evolved
  3. Which planet is rotating in the opposite direction compared to most of the planets, and also opposite to the direction that the planets revolve around the Sun?
    Venus
  4. What object in the inner Solar System is part of a large planetesimal that struck Earth early in its history?
    Moon
  5. A sedimentary deposit formed in the center of a large deep lake is likey to show what?
    laminar bedding
  6. In benthic environments below the photic zone in the ocean, the first-level consumers in the detrital food web consist of?
    deposit feeders and suspension feeders
  7. What percentage of the mass of the Solar System do the planets, asteroids, and comets represent?
    less than 1 percent
  8. The most recent and reliable data indicate that the Universe is how old?
    13.7 billion years
  9. Which of the following elements is NOT among the four that comprise 80 percent of the mass of Earth?
    Carbon (Mg, O, Fe, Si)
  10. A red mudstone contains what? and is deposited where?
    Contains organics and/or iron, and was deposited in oidizing conditions
  11. A sedimentary deposit that had a rippled surface at the time of deposition is likely to show what?
    cross bedding
  12. Which of the following is necessary to convert the genetic code of DNA into proteins?
    RNA
  13. The genetic code is written in triplets (DNA), or codons (RNA), (3 bases in a row), that generally code for _____, many of which are assembled into long chain-like structures called proteins.
    amino acid
  14. According to the modern Solar Nebular Hypothsis ofr the origin of the Solar System, when the Sun had largely developed and it became a thermonuclear body, ____
    The sun began to spew significant matter and energy outward, gases were swept from the inner Solar System, and the inner Solar System was largely reduced to refractory rocky materials
  15. In the pelagic (open ocean) food web, the primary producers are organisms that have a large ratio of ____
    surface are to volume
  16. Which of the following types of fossils is NOT considered to be a trace fossil?
    a dinosaur tooth (yes= burrow, footprint, bite mark)
  17. In the interior of the Sun, 596 million metric tons of hydrogen are fused into 532 million metric tons of helium per second. What happens to the remaining mass (64 million metric tons)?
    Its converted to energy
  18. The occurence of which of the following in the life cycle of a plant distinguishes plants from algae?
    an embryo
  19. The Voyager spacecraft, launched in the 1970's, has recently reached the outer edge of the Solar System (heliopause), and is traveling about 1 million miles per day. If it continues at that rate for another 40,000 years it will _____.
    be only half way to the nearest star
  20. Segments of the genetic code that may spontaneously change their position in the code are referred to as ____.
    transposons
  21. Considering the overall composition of the Solar System and the proportion of Earth's mass to that of the whole Solar System, Earth does not have its "fair share" of which of the following elements?
    Ne (neon)......(has fair share of Fe, Si, Na, Al)
  22. In which of the following environments would you expect to find sediment deposits that are the best sorted (reguarding grain size)?
    dune landward of a beach
  23. The active parts of the genetic code generally consist of a ____ followed by a start command, which is followed by a ____ and then by a stop command.
    Regulatory gene/ structural gene
  24. Which of the following does NOT really increase the likelihood of an organism becoming fossilized?
    large sized (rapid burial, burial with no oxygen, hard parts)
  25. Which rock type probably resulted from deposition by a glacier?
    a boulder-bearing poorly-sorted silty conglomerate
  26. The genetic code in DNA consists of match base-pairs that are represented by their first letters. The matching pairs are?
    C-G and T-A
  27. According to a modern understanding of the evolution of life, which of the following is a true statement?
    Potential positive adaptations arise with no original purpose and natural selection results in some adaptations eing passed on, and the elimination of others.
  28. I used automobiles to illustrate the nature of which fundamental geologic principle?
    Biologic Succession
  29. Exons are part of structural genes that are?
    expressed
  30. Which of the following pairs represents homologous structures?
    bat's wing/ whale's flipper
  31. List all the Kingdoms of life on Earth that consist of eukaryotes?
    Fungi, Animalia, Plantae, Protoctista
  32. The cosmic microwave background radiation, first serendipitously (fortunate and unplanned) detected by Penzias and Wilson at Bell Labs in New Jersey, is regarded as evidence for _____.
    the Big Bang
  33. Members of the Kingdom Archaea are often called "extremophiles" because they can live in ____.
    sulfuric-acid-rich environments, very salty water, and very hot environments
  34. From the data that are currently available, it appears that the Universe is composed primarily of ____ with a lesser amount of _____.
    Hydrogen and Helium
  35. Phytoplankton are the dominant primary producers in the ______ food web.
    pelagic (open ocean)
  36. The portion of the ocean where there is enough sunlight for photosynthesis is called the ____ zone.
    photic
  37. Marine organisms that obtain their food by extracting particles from the water are called ______.
    suspension feeders
  38. The most massive element that can be formed in the core of even the largest stars is ______.
    Fe (iron)
  39. You observe the radiation from two objects (1 and 2) in space with a spectrometer, and 2 has the characteristic signature for the element calcium shifted to a longer wavelength (red shifted) than 1 does. What can be determined?
    2 is recending faster than 1
  40. Considering the previous question (2 is receding faster than 1) what is the correct answer if you also consider what is known about the univers as a whole?
    2 is farther away than 1, and 2 is receding faster than 1
  41. The districution of angular momentum in the Solar System provides evidence for an important flaw in the Kant-Laplace Nebular Hypothesis for the origin of the Solar System. Whats wrong?
    The sun rotates too slowly
  42. The inner (Terrestrial) planets of the Solar System differ from the large outer (Jovian) planets in _____.
    density and composition
  43. A well-sorted quartz sandstone that exhibits ten-foot cross-bedding was most likely deposited ____.
    by wind in a desert
  44. Useless structures found in some animals, such as a pelvis in boa constrictor snakes, are called _____.
    vestigial
  45. Which of the following is a true statement?
    The sun is mostly compressed H and He.
  46. In the cross-section diagram below, which rock body is the youngest?
    The one going cross-bedding all the others
  47. One of the major ways that prokaryotic cells differ from eukaryotic cells is that they _____.
    Do not have a nucleus
  48. Which of the geologic Law or Principle states, "In a sequence of layered sedimentary rocks, the oldest are at the bottom of the stack, and the layers are younger upward"?
    Principle of Superposition
  49. A buried surface of erosion where the layers below are parallel to those above is called _____.
    disconformity
  50. In the Linnean Classification System, which category is next below Kingdom?
    Phylum
  51. What is the most abundant gas in Earth's atmosphere today?
    N2
  52. If a geologically sudden release of a large volume of methane hydrate occured at some time in the geologic past, what clue might we find in the rock record that would inform us about that?
    A sudden decrease in the C13/C12 ratio in fossil shells
  53. How has most of the oxygen in Earth's atmoshpere been derived?
    photosynthesis
  54. A good index taxon is ______.
    Is easy to identify, geographically widespread, lived for a short period of time, very abundant
  55. What are the oldest Earth rocks that have ever been radiometrically (isotopically) dated? (discovered last year in Quebec, Canada)
    4.28 billion year old greenstone
  56. When large continental glaciers develop on land what happens to the ratio of O18 to O16 in seawater?
    it increases
  57. If primary producers in the pelagic food web greatly increase in numbers over a short interval of time, what clue may be found in the rock record to let us know that such an event occurred?
    a decrease in the C13/C12 ration in sea-bottom sediment
  58. If photosynthetic life had not developed early in Earth history, it is likely that _____.
    Earth's atmosphere would be more like that of Venus, and earth's surface temperature would be very hot due to the CO2 greenhouse effect
  59. The half life of Carbon 14 is ______.
    5730 years
  60. What is the ratio of Mg to Ca in seawater when ocean ridge volume is small and sea level is relatively low?
    It is relatively high
  61. Archean Greenstones probably represent what geological features?
    narrow ocean basins, and subduction zone/volcanic island arcs
  62. Two fossil shells of different ages were analyzed and the O18/O16 ratio of the shell formed at time 1 was 4/200, and that of the shell formed at 2 was 3/120. What does this tell us about the conditions at the times when the shells were formed?
    Sea level was higher at time 1 then 2, and there was more glacial ice on continents at time 2 then 1 (4/200 = .02 and 3/120 = .025)
  63. What kind of rock was probably deposited in an arid environment close to a mountain range composed of granite?
    an arkose sandstone
  64. What were some of the conditions on Earth during the Archean Eon?
    Many small oceans, many small continents
  65. Radiometric (isotopic) age determinations are valid only if _______.
    the sample has remained a closed system
  66. What gas is one of the much more abundant in Earth's early atmosphere than it is today?
    Carbon dioxide
  67. 232Th radioactively decays to _____?
    idk find out!
  68. Most of the carbon dioxide has been removed from the atmosphere and ocean as a result of ______.
    deposition of organic carbon and calcium carbonate, and photosynthesis
  69. What percentage of today's atmosphere is left over from the initial (primordial) atmosphere inherited from the solar nebula?
    less than 1 percent
  70. In order for O2 concentration in the atmosphere to rise significantly, what must happen?
    unoxidized carbon must be sequestered (buried)
  71. The largest reservoir of carbon on Earth is _____/
    limestones
  72. From the geologic evidence seen in continental cratons, how long has plate tectonic activity been going on? It has been occuring since some time in the ______.
    Archean
  73. If you observe a stratigraphic section going from mudstone, fine sandstone, coarse sandstone, fine sandstone, mudstone, what happened during its deposition?
    marine regression then transgression
  74. The Mg/Ca ratio of seawater has been determined for two different times in the geologic past. The ratio at time 1 was 3/10; the ratio at time 2 was 6/10. What can we determine from this data?
    sea level at time 1 was higher than 2, and ocean ridge volume was higher at time 1 than 2
  75. The two prominent rock types among Archean rocks of continental cratons are _____.
    greenstones and granitoids
  76. A well-sorted quartz sandstone that exhibits ten-foot cross-bedding was most likely deposited _____.
    by wind in a desert
  77. Rocks of ______ age are older than rocks of _____age.
    Devonian/ Carboniferous
  78. What definitely represents an isochronous surface; that is, a layer of rock that represents the same short interval of time everywhere?
    a volcanic ash layer
  79. If a radioactive parent isotope X58 with atomic number 26 decays into daughter isotope Y56 with atomic number 25, what type of decay does that pair experience?
    electron capture
  80. What is a way that plate techtonics has affected the history of life on Earth?
    Continent rifting that split biota into populations that evolved independently, sea level rise and fall by 100s of meters, continental migration across latitudes causing climate change, and episodes of massive continental ice sheets, or lack of glaciers
  81. Famous experiments by Stanley Miller in the 1950's documented that chemical reactions involving only inorganic materials and an electrical spark can yeild organic materials. The organic material produced in those experiments included ______.
    amino acids
  82. In a fossil range chart, the age of a rock containing certain fossils is as old as _____.
    As old as the oldest mark of the youngest fossil
  83. When does the geologic record seem to indicate that O2 concentration began to rise in the atmosphere?
    2.3 to 2 billion years ago
  84. If a crystal in an igneous rock is found to have 250 atoms of radioactive parent isotope, and 1750 atoms of its stable daughter isotope, how old is the crystal>
    3 half lives
  85. The Oparin-Haldane Hypothesis suggested that ______.
    life on earth naturally arose from inorganic components under favorable conditions
  86. The oldest most stable parts of a continent is referred to as the _____.
    Craton
  87. Which geologic Principles did you use to say the deposition of the bottom layer was first?
    Original lateral continuity
  88. What feature of the history of the Cambrian Period was influential in the development of the great diversity of benthic shelled marine animal taxa that evolved during that time?
    transgression and expansion of the shallow sea environment
  89. A collison between southern Laurentia and Baltica-Avalonia occurred during the _____ period, and is called the _______ Orogeny.
    Devonian, Acadian
  90. Small shelly fossils (SSF/Tommotian Fauna), which are evidence for the first animals with mineralized skeletons, are mostly found in rocks of _______ age.
    Early Cambrian
  91. The scientific evidence suggests that the most likely invertebrate ancestors of the Chordata were probably _______.
    Tunicate larvae
  92. The fossil record of which geologic Period is dominated by fossils of trilobites?
    Cambrian
  93. The earliest tectonic collision in the Paleozoic Era, involving Laurentia, appears to have occurred between an island arc and southern Laurentia. It happened in the _____.
    Mid-late Ordovician
  94. The tectonic event (Orogeny) in the mid-late Ordovician is referred to as the ______.
    Taconic Orogeny
  95. Which of the following is NOT a significant component of all life on Earth?
    collagen
  96. The late Proterozoic megacontinent that formed about 1 billion years ago is called _____.
    Rodinia
  97. The late Proterozoic fossils referred to as the Edicaca biota consist of _______.
    impressions of organisms that lacked skeletons
  98. The burrows named Treptichnus pedium are used to define the beginning of which geological Period?
    Cambrian
  99. It is thought that jaws evolved by modification of the _______.
    gill arches (bars)
  100. The Catskill deltaic wedge (and the Old Red Sandstone in Europe) provides evidence for ______.
    continental collision in the Devonian and the Acadian Orogeny
  101. The most significant difference between placoderms and ostracoderms is ______.
    jaws
  102. The dominant group of early amphibians (Devonian-Carboniferous) is named for the type of teeth they have in common with their non-amphibian ancestors. Those amphibians were called ______.
    labyrinthodonts
  103. Which group of fishes were probably the ancestors of both chondrichthyes and osteichthyes?
    acanthodians
  104. The dominant fishes of the marine environment during the Devonian were the______,
    placoderms
  105. The coal reserves of the Appalachain Basin, which fueled the American Industrial Revolution, were deposited during the _______ Period.
    Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian)
  106. In what type of environment did the transition from fish to amphibian take place?
    rivers and swamps
  107. The oldest-known fossils of eukaryotes are ______.
    Grypania
  108. The therapsids are considered to be the ancestors of which group?
    mammals
  109. As documented by the fossil record, which of the following developed last as some lineages of fishes evolved into amphibians?
    hind legs
  110. A repetitive cycle of alternating rising and falling sea level that resulted in the deposition of dozens of marine/non-marine sequences (cyclothems) is characteristic of the rocks of which geologic Period?
    Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian)
  111. What were the dominant vertebrate land animals in the Late Carboniferous?
    amphibians
  112. Rapid sea level fall and a pulse of continental glaciation in the Southern Hemisphere during the late Ordovician may have caused ______.
    a mass extinction of marine invertebrates
  113. Some Archean sandstones deposited in vigorously flowing rivers contained rounded grains of pyrite, uraninite, and siderite. What does this indicate about the atmosphere at that time?
    It was not oxidizing
  114. The extensive deposition of evaporites and widespread continental red beds formed in deserts during the Permian Period provide evidence for climatic changes that seem to have favored the ______.
    reptiles over amphibians
  115. During which geologic period do the fossils of animals represent the widest variety of body plans, including Opabina with 5 eyes, bizarre spikey Hallucigenia, and strange echinoderms, ect.?
    Cambrian
  116. When does the geologic record seem to indicate that O2 concentration first began to significantly rise in the atmosphere?
    2.3 to 2 billion years ago
  117. The cause of cyclical terrestrial and marine deposits called cyclothems was probably repetitive _______.
    glaciation and deglaciation in Gondwanaland
  118. During which geologic Period was there extensive limestone deposition across most of Laurentia, which produced the rock used for many federal buildings and the Empire State building?
    early carboniferous (mississippian)
  119. The synapsids consist of two major groups, the pelycosaurs that had sail-like structures on their backs and the ______, that had hair, large canine teeth, and lived in temperate to polar regions.
    therapsids
  120. Which of the following occurs earliest in the fossil record? Ostracoderms, Pikaia, trilobites, Cloudina, amphibians?
    Cloudina
  121. Some of the rocks exposed below the limestone lip at Niagara Falls comprise rocks referred to as the Queenston deltaic wedge. They consist of _______ that document an orogeny at that time.
    Ordovician sandstone and shale
  122. What were the dominant vertebrate land animals during the Silurian Period?
    NOT placoderms, amphibians, mammals, cotylosaurs
  123. Small bony plates in some Upper Cambrian rocks are the earliest evidence of fishes called_______.
    ostracoderms
  124. The probable direct ancestor of the Amphibia were the _______.
    rhipidistian fishes
  125. What is the geologic evidence for the timing of the initial significant build up of oxygen 2.3 to 2 billion years ago?
    shift from banded iron formations to redbeds
  126. The discovery that organelles of eukaryotic cells possess their own DNA provides compelling evidence that supports the _______/
    Endosymbiosis (Serial Symbiosis) Theory
  127. What group seems to have been primarily adapted to living on the sea floor?
    ostracoderms
  128. Fossils of Pikaia from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, and similar fossils from Early cambrian rocks in China, are among the earliest-known fossil evidence for _______.
    Chordata
  129. One interpretation of microscopic fossils which comprise as few as just one per unit, or up to more than 64 units, yet are all the same size, is that they may be the currently oldest-known fossil evidence for _______.
    Animalia
  130. The ability to produce collagen is an important feature of animals that allows them to grouw large, have rigid body, and produce shells. What appears to be necessary for formation of collagen?
    abundant oxygen
  131. The presence of the chemical sterane in some 2.7 billion year old rocks is thought to provide evidence for the exsistence of ________ at that time.
    eukaryotes
  132. The Appalachian Mountains were uplifted in the Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) Period in an event called the _______ Orogeny.
    Allegheny
  133. What does the occurrence of banded iron formation deposits indicate about conditions at the time of their deposition?
    little O2 in the atmosphere, and episodic O2 abundance in the ocean
  134. The "sails" of the synapsids called pelycosaurs were probably used for _______.
    Controlling body temperature
  135. Mounds of finely laminated (layered) calcium carbonate (stromatolites) are/were _______.
    made by cyanobacteria, and are the oldest known fossils
  136. What is the most important evolutionary advance of the reptiles compared to the amphibians?
    amniote egg
  137. During most of the Paleozoic Era, Laurentia was situated _________.
    astride the equator.

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