Patho Chapter 17

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tville01
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148340
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Patho Chapter 17
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2012-04-25 19:48:00
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Patho Chapter 17
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Patho Chapter 17
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  1. What are the formed elements that make up blood?
    • RBC
    • WBC
    • platelets
  2. Where are RBC produced?
    Red bone marrow
  3. Cellular fragments
    oringinate from megakaryocytes
    platelets
  4. Where do platelets originate
    Red bone marrow from megakaryocytes
  5. Where are WBC produced?
    • Red bone marrow
    • Lymphatic tissue
  6. What is the function of RBC?
    • contain hemoglobin
    • transports Oxygen
  7. What is the function of platelets?
    prevent blood loss
  8. What is the function of WBC?
    defense against pathogens
  9. What is plasma?
    • liquid portion of blood
    • transport medium
  10. What is a CBC?
    complete blood count
  11. What is a normal RBC count range in a CBC?
    4.2-5.9 million/mm3
  12. What is a normal WBC count in a CBC?
    4,500-10,500/mm3
  13. What are normal male and female counts for hemoglobin?
    • Male- 13.5-18g/dl(g/100ml)
    • Female- 12-16g/dl(g/100ml)
  14. Percent of RBC in a volume of whole blood
    Hematocrit
  15. What are normal male and female percentages for a hematocrit
    • Male- 45-52%

    • Female- 37-48%
  16. Decrease in the total number or quality of RBC and/or hemoglobin
    anemia
  17. What is the etiology of anemia?
    Removal or loss of RBC exceeds replacementa capacity of the bone marrow

    Increased destruction

    Decrease in production
  18. What are the common signs and symtoms of anemia?
    • pale skin
    • fatigue/muscle weakness
    • dyspena/shortness of breath
    • palpitations
    • vital signs
    • brittle nails
    • paresthesia
  19. What causes the pale skin in a person with anemia?
    Decreased hemoglobin
  20. What causes the fatigue and muscle weakness in a person with anemia?
    Inadequate Oxygen = less ATP= less cellular metabolism
  21. What causes the Dyspensa in a person with anemia?
    Compensatory for the lack of oxygen
  22. What causes the palpitations in a person with anemia?
    • compensatory
    • heart tries to pump more O2 to tissue
  23. What happens to the vital signs in a person with anemia? Why?
    • tachycardia
    • lower BP
    • heart rate increases, blood pressure goes down, trying to get blood to tissue faster
  24. Why do patients with anemia get brittle nails?
    • impaired proliferation of epithelial cells
    • Late Sign
  25. What is parethesia and what causes it in patients with anemia?
    • numbness
    • neuronal hypoxia( neurons not getting enough O2)
  26. How are anemias classified?
    color and size of RBC
  27. abnormally large cells
    macrocytic
  28. cells of normal size
    normocytic
  29. abnormally small cells
    microcytic
  30. What provides a quick and easy way to evaluate RBC size and shape, and their hemoglobin content
    blood smear
  31. RBC with High concentration of hemoglobin in the cytoplasm
    Hyperchromic
  32. RBC with normal amounts of hemoglobin
    normochromic
  33. RBC with low amounts of hemoglobin in cytoplasm
    hypochromic
  34. What are three specific types of anemia?
    • Iron deficiency
    • Pernicious
    • Hemolytic
  35. What is the etiology of iron deficiency anemia?
    • microcytic-hypochromic anemia
    • chronic bleeding
    • iron deficient diet
    • Vegetarians
    • pregnancy
    • impaired duodenal absorption of iron
    • malabsorption syndrome
    • achlorhydria
  36. Abnormal condition caused by the absence of HCL in the gastric juice
    interferes with early protein digestion and iron absorption
    achlorhydria
  37. What are additional signs and symptoms for iron deficency anemia?
    • stomatitis
    • glossitis
  38. Ulcers in the oral mucosa
    stomatitis
  39. Inflammation of the tongue
    glossitis
  40. What diagnostic test are used to confirm iron deficency anemia?
    • CBC
    • Decrease in hemoglobin & hematocrit
    • Serum Ferratin decreased
    • Serum Iron decreased
    • Transferrian Saturation decreased
  41. storage form of iron
    formed in intestine
    stored in liver, spleen , and bone marrow
    serum ferratin
  42. Trace protein in blood that transports iron from intestine to bone marrow
    transferrin
  43. What is the treatment for iron deficiency anemia?
    • treat underlying cause
    • iron supplement
    • diet changes
  44. Complications of iron deficiency anemia?
    Tissue Hypoxia
  45. What is the prognosis for iron deficiency anemia?
    • Good if underlying issue is addressed
    • supplements help
  46. In what type of anemia is jaundice more likely to occur?
    Hemolytic
  47. What type of diorder is Sickle Cell Anemia?
    autosomal recessive
  48. What type of anemia can cause vascuar occlusion and infarctions in various organs?
    Sickle Cell
  49. What type of anemia is caused by lack of intrinsic factor?
    Pernicious
  50. What type of anemia is charcterized by neurological symptoms such as a lack of muscle coordination?
    Pernicious
  51. What type of anemia is likely to cause an inflammation of the tongue?
    iron deficiency
  52. How are Lukemias classified?
    by the type of WBC that has undergone malignant transformation
  53. Which of the following is not a charecteristic of Lukemia?
    A. thrombocytopenia
    B. polycythemia
    C. severe bone pain
    D. opportunistic infections
    B. polycythemia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. What type of disorder is Hemophilia?
    sex linked recessive

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