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  1. paralanguage
    • lies between verbal and non-verbal communication,
    • involves sounds but not words. Three categories (1) voice quality, (2) voice qualifiers, (3) vocalization.
  2. Voice Qualifiers
    • volume, pitch and overall intonation ex. Asking a
    • question ( raising pitch at the end of a sentence )
  3. Vocalization
    • non word noises such as “ahem”, “um” or “er”. May be
    • used as connectors between ideas. Frequency of use varies across cultures.
  4. three aspects of nonverbal communication
    • Eye Contact
    • Facial Expressions
    • Gestures: Head Movements, arm movements, and posture.
  5. In what ways can nonverbal communication signals indicate power and status
    • Eye Contact
    • · Posture: A confident person stands erect with the shoulders back and the head up
    • · Shaking Hands: Firm handshake in The U.S and Germany, Soft handshake in France
    • · Office Space: In the U.S office space and location of office are indicative of a businesspersons success, importance, power and status.
    • · Appearance: Dressing according to custom and expectations shows respect for form and establishes a foundation for future dealings
  6. List some of the ways people in your culture are rewarded for good performance. Compare and contrast this to other
    Singling out one individual as the top performer in Taiwanese firm could be embarrassing for the employee and not endear him to his coworkers.

    Japanese woman turned down higher level jobs because they do not think it would be fair to be singled out from among all the other women. For the sake of maintaining harmony.Emphasis on fitting in.
  7. Discuss several aspects of how people demonstrate power distance.
    · Tone and Behavior: Germans have the tendency to establish their authority by giving very clear, precise and blunt directions.

    • o Titles are important and often used
    • ·
    • Language: In Japan the language subordinates use is different then what superiors use. Address reflects ones standing in a group.
    • ·
    • Family and Societal Structures: Islam has a power hierarchy where the extended family or clan is often ruled by the senior male member
  8. Discuss typical reactions to an unfamiliar culture: hostility, curiosity, denial, and cooperation.
    • 1. Hostility: It is sometimes a shock to realize that far from wanting to become part of the dominant culture, some immigrants reject it in the fear that they will lose their own culture.
    • 1. Curiosity: An open and respectful interest in learning about other cultures motivates people to connect around the globe. Ex. Internet, youtube, facebook brings us closer than ever before
    • 1. Denial: “Of course there different but were better”. Japanese think of outsiders as barbarians. All groups tend to ook at their own culture as superior and others inferior. Ethnocentrism.
    • 1. Cooperating: We can agree to be different and celebrate diversity. The more we know about other cultures the more we will learn about our own.
  9. What is culture shock? Explain the four stages in culture shock and also touch upon reverse culture shock.
    • Culture shock is the term for the cycle of responses to a foreign culture that comes from trying to make adjustments to it. Culture shock has four stages:
    • euphoria (the honeymoon period associated with exploring a new cultural experience)
    • disillusionment (frustration with different cultural nuances)
    • adjustment (coming to terms with a new cultural norm)
    • integration

    • Reverse culture shock is the term used to describe re-entry responses when someone
    • tries to readjust to his or her own culture after having lived in a foreign
    • culture.
  10. Explain the concept of Cultural Intelligence; describe its three factors
    • Cultural Intelligence: the capability of an individual to learn and understand another culture and then act accordingly
    • Cognition
    • Motivation
    • Behaviors
  11. Discuss cultural change and give examples. Refer to deep culture and popular culture
    Popular culture: which includes consumer products – music, food, and clothing—constantly changes but deep (backstage culture) – the values, attitudes, and cultural dimensions that have been learned since birth – change very little and very, slowly.
  12. Cross Cultural Communication
    Compares communication in different cultures

    o compares nonverbal communication and other communication behaviors
  13. Intercultural Communication
    Examines communication interactions between people of different cultures.

    o Focuses on outcomes of communication interactions and processes
  14. What advice would you give him for selecting a good interpreter?
    Intrepreter has to be both linguistically and culturally fluent in both languages and cultures. The interpreter must pick up on both the verbal and the nonverbal signs of all the people in the discussion.

    Hire your own interpreter for you need an interpreter who understands your side and who is loyal to you.

    Meet with the interpreter beforehand

    Check the technical expertise of the interpreter.

    Inform the interpreter of your business plan and objectives

    Treat the interpreter as a professional
  15. Stereotyping
    means using oversimplified generalizations to understand people. Stereotypes are fixed, firm, inflexible mental categories. They are incomplete information about people, and using them, rather than seeking more information means that the picture is limited. Not all stereotypes are negative
  16. Cultural generalizations
    can be used to make predictions about how a culture in general thinks, acts, and believes. Generalizations hide many individual variations.
  17. High-context cultures
    rely on the the context, either the actual physical environment of communication or an internalized social context or both to convey a large part or even all of a messages meaning
  18. Low-context cultures
    Meaning is entrusted almost entirely to words. Words are spelled out fully, clearly, and precisely
  19. Discuss how a culture's view toward knowing and knowledge is related to how people learn to learn.
    • In some cultures, firsthand experience alone legitimately constitutes what is known, all else is hearsay.
    • In many cultures knowing and being wise come with age.
    • According to budhists knowledge learned gained from study or listening isn’t as valuable as knowledge that comes from meditation.
  20. Individualism
    • values individual achievements, failures, and
    • rights over the collective
  21. Collectivism
    values the group above the individual, and individuals have a responsibility to the group that supersedes individual needs or rights.
  22. Discuss the issue of culture in the conventional communication model.
    The more different the stored experiences, categories, attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors are—that is the more different the cultures are—the more likely it is the members of the organization will assign different meanings to the encoded message.
  23. Describe the direct plan for organizing messages and discuss the cultural reasons for preference (or distaste) for it in at least two cultures.
    · Relays the conclusion and recommendations first before the slower part outlining the details of the report. The main message is given before the specific details.

    · To high context communicators a direct plan approach may seem rude and abrupt the writer may be viewed as unfriendly or unwilling.
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