THE CONVERSION OF PYRUVIC ACID TO LACTIC ACID IS A _____ PROCESS.
THE CONVERSION OF LACTIC ACID TO PYRUVIC ACID IS A _____ PRCESS.
PYRUVATE + ____ + ____ -->
LACTIC ACID & ______.
2 NADH + 2H
2 NAD +
METHYLENE BLUE WAS UTILIZED AS WHAT ?
SUBSTUTE FOR NAD+, WHICH WAS THE NATURAL e- ACCEPTOR (THE COENZYME). IT WAS WORKING ON THE LACTATE IONS.
WHAT IS THE FORMULA WHEN METHYLENE BLUE WAS USED IN ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION?
WHN IS MB OXIDIZED/REDUCED?
MB + 2 [H+] + 2e- -----> MB-H2
OXIDIZED (BLUE) REDUCED (COLORLESS)
FERMENTATION AND GLYCOLSIS YIELD 4 ATP MOLECULES VIA WHAT?
BUT REMEMBER THAT YOU USE 2 FOR A NET GAIN OF 2 ATP.
WHAT IS THE SUMMARY FORMULA FOR ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION?
GLUCOSE + 2 ADP + 2 P -----> 2 ATP AND EITHER
ETHYL ALCOHOL & CO2 OR LACTIC ACID.
WHAT TYPE OF RESIPRATION OCCURS IN THE KREBS CYCLE?
IN AEROBIC RESP. WHAT IS REMOVED FROM THE PYRUVATE?
WHAT DOES THIS?
WHAT ARE THE PRODUCTS?
CO2 IS REMOVED BY AND OXIDATION REACTION FROM COENZYME A.
THE END PRODUCTS ARE :
-NADH (FROM NAD+)
-MOLECULE OF CO2
IN AEROBIC RESP, ACETYL CoA REACTS WITH OXALOACETIC ACID TO FORM WHAT?
HOW MANY CARBONS DOES THIS PRODUCT HAVE AND WHERE DID THEY COME FROM?
CITRIC ACID, THUS THE NAME CYTRIC ACID CYCLE (KREB'S CYCLE).
2C ACETYLE CoA + 4C OXALOACETIC ACID
REMEMBER TO REVIEW THE KREB'S (CYTIRC ACID) CYCLE!!!
THE LECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN IS ALSO KNOWN AS WHAT?
THE ENZYMES AND THE [H+] AND e- CARRIERS IF THE ETC ARE BOUND TO THE ________ _______.
NAD+, FAD, COENZYME Q, CYT B, CYT C, CYT A.
ALL OF THESE DO WHAT?
ALL ARE PART OF A MULTIENZYME COMPLEX THAT ARE CARRIERS OF THE ETC.
WHEN YOU WANT TO DETECT THE PRESENCE OF DNA IN A HOMOGENIZED CELL FRACTION OF0.25m SURCOSE, WHAT DO YOU USE?
DIPHENYLAMINE. IT WILLL PRODUCE A BLUE COLOUR WHEN IT REACTS WITH DNA.
MITOCHONDRIA CAN BE DETECTED USING WHAT?
WHAT DOES IT REACT WITH AND WHAT IS THE RESULT?
MITO CONTAIN THE ENZYME SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE, WHICH IS CAPABLE OF CATALYZING THE REDUCTION OF MB DURING THE OXIDATION OF SUCCINIATE.
MB SERVES AS e- ACCEPTOR IN PLACE OF FAD.
DEFINE OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
THE PROCESS IN WHICH ATP IS A RESULT OF THE OPERATION OF THE RESPIRATORY CHAIN.
WHAT IS THE SUMMARY FORMULA FROM AEROBIC RESPIRATION?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 36 ADP +36 P ------>
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP
HOW DOES ONE CALCULATE REQUIRED RPM?
1000√ (RCF/ 11.2 * r)
RCF IS THE g UNITS
r IS RADUIS IN cm
WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF SODIUM FLUORIDE ON FERMENTATION?
The effect of sodium fluoride on fermentation process is that it severely inhibits anaerobic respiration and has some, if little or no effect, on aerobic respiration.
the enzyme enolase catalyzes the dehydration of 2 phosphoglyceric acid. Sodium fluoride exerts its inhibitory effect by tying up the metal ions necessary for the activity of the enzyme. What metal is affected?
Why is the lactic acid enzyme called a dehydrogenase rather than oxidase?
oxidase will oxidize oxygen and dehydrogenase catalyzes both reactions.
What subcellular particles could be obtained from a 12000 g supernatant?
A 12000 g supernatant would produce a 57000S unit. Therefore ribosome organelles with similar molecular weighted particles would be obtained or anything smaller than mitochondria
IF YOU HAVE NO Na SUCCINATE, WHAT WILL NOT HAPPEN IN THE MITOCHONDRIA?
NO TCA CYCLE.
Only two molecules of ATP are produced by the aerobic conversion of succinic acid to fumaric acid. Explain why.
Only two of the ATP are produced because the net gain of only two ATP molecules is produced from the oxidative phosphorylation of succinic acid to fumaric acid via FAD to FADH2.FAD yields only two ATP whereas NAD+ will yield three ATP as a result of the process this is due to amount of protons that are pumped.
What are the ultimate electronic accepters of the respiratory chain? How is the substance continually supplied to the mitochondria?
The ultimate electronic acceptor of the respiratory chain is FAD. However methylene blue was utilized as acceptor during the experiment. The substance is continually supplied to the DNA of the mitochondria because it binds very easily to the phosphate backbones.