Mrt 263

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Author:
marlasherman
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148372
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Mrt 263
Updated:
2012-04-18 16:37:10
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Genitourinary system
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  1. Name three reasons for obtainging a scout or preliminary radiograph with the patient recumbent for an IVU
    • To evaluate the exposure factors
    • To demonstrate any urinary calculi
    • To demonstrate location & size of kidneys
  2. What type of contrast is commonly used for an IVU
    Water soluble iodinated
  3. Durring an IVU what is best demonstrated 30 seconds after the bolus injected
    Contrast seen within nephrons of the kidney nephrogram (BLUSH)
  4. Durring an IVU what is best demonstrated 2-8 minutes after the bolus injected
    Contrast begins to appear in the pelvicalyceal system
  5. Durring an IVU what is best demonstrated15-20 minutes after the bolus injected
    Greatest concentration
  6. The supine position best demonstrates in a IVU
    The upper calyces
  7. The upright postion best demonstrated in a IVU
    The motility of the kidneys
  8. The trendelenburg best demonstrates in a IVU
    The distal/lower ureters( as the bladder fundus stretches superiorly) and pelvicalyceal region
  9. What degree of obliquitly for an POV during an IVU
    30 degrees
  10. What does an RPO view best demonstrate
    LT. kidney which is parallel to IR and the RT. proximal ureter is demonstrated free of the spine
  11. What does an LPO view best demonstrate
    RT kidney which is parallel to the IR and the LT proximal ureter is demonstrated free of the spine
  12. Most IVU images are obtained on what repiration cycle
    On suspended expiration or exhilation
  13. When performing IVU examinations what is best demonstrated by the supine position
    Filling of upper calyces
  14. When performing IVU examinations what is best demonstrated by the Erect positon
    Motility of kidneys
  15. When performing IVU examinations what is best demonstrated by the Trendenlenburg position
    Distal ureters ( as bladder fundus stretches superiorly) and pelvicalyceal region
  16. What does a post void image demonstrate in a IVU examination
    Residual urine in bladder
  17. Why is compression sometimes applied during an IVU examination?
    To retard the flow of contrast into the bladder & ensure adequate filling of the calyces
  18. Where should the compression band be placed in a IVU examination
    Over the distal ends of the ureters at the level of the ASIS
  19. Why must the compression be released slowly in a IVU examination
    To avoid visceral rupture
  20. Define retrograde Urography
    NON - FUNCTIONAL radiographic study of the urinary system using contrast during cystoscopy
  21. Where is the contrast placed for retrograde urography
    Directly into the pelvicalyceal system via catheterization
  22. In retrograde Urography what is the purpose of tilting the table10-15 degrees trendelenburg
    Aids in keeping the contrast medium in the kidneys
  23. What is the purpose of performing a Modified Retrograde Urogram
    • To assess kidney function by using an injectable colored dye and not contrast
    • Good for patients with sensitivitly to contrast
  24. Define Cystograghy
    A NON FUNCTIONAL radiographic examination of the urinary bladder using contrast
  25. What is the main difference between cystography and voiding cystography
    Coiding cystography is a FUNCTIONAL study wehre images are taken as the patient voids cehreas cystography is a NON FUNCTIONAL study (retrograde study)
  26. What must the adult patient do prior to begining these procedures
    • Empty their bladder
    • So that the contrast does not get diluted
  27. Define cystourethrography
    A NON functional radiographic demonstration of the urethra using a contrast medium
  28. What is the difference between cystourethrography and voiding cystourethrography
    Voiding cystourethrography is a FUNCIONAl study whereas a cystourethrography is NON functional against normal flow
  29. What two projection/views are done for a Cystourethrography and voiding cystourethrography examination
    Usually an AP and Posterior oblique views
  30. Name 3 reasons for performing a percutaneous catheter nephrostomy(PCN)
    • Drainage
    • Drug installation
    • Instrument insertion
  31. What does ESWL stand for
    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
  32. Name two methods of stone removal after apercutanous nephrolithotomy
    • Basket extraction
    • Ultrasonic lithotripter
  33. Define hysterosalpingography
    A radiographic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes that involves an injection of contrast medium into a catheter inserted in the uterus
  34. What is the optimun time durring a females menstrual cycle to perform an hysterosalpingography examination
    This procedure must take place 10 days after the onset of menstruation because the endometrium congested then
  35. Describe the postion of each kidney?Which one is more superior and why
    The kidneys are positioned between T12 and L3
  36. Which part of the kidney lies most anterior and which part lies most posterior
    The left is more superior due to the liver pushing down the right kidney
  37. Which part of the ureter is most anterior? Where does it join the bladder( what aspect)
    The superior portion of the kidney is most posterior and the inferior portion is most anterior
  38. Why are the location /position of the kidney an important consideration when performing contrast studies of this area
    To help influence the location of the contrast media when positioning the patients body
  39. Why is it necessary for thepatient to empty their bladdeer prior to a cystogram being performed
    To prevent dilution of the contrast media
  40. Why is retrograde urography considered a NON functional study
    It by passes the circulatory system therefore the contrast does not get filtered by the kidneys
  41. What would be done to make it functional study (retrograde Urography examination)
    Injecting a colored dye and seeing how long it takes to become visible in the urine
  42. When a hysterosalpingiogram is being booked what factors must be considered
    • Patient must not be pregnant
    • Procedure must be booked 10 days after the onset of menstruation
  43. A hysterosalpingiogram is used to determine if a patient is pregnant?
    True or false
    False
  44. When is a KUB (kidney,Urine,Bladder) requested?
    From an emergency department to determine the site of a kidney stone in a patient with renal colic
  45. Radiographich images for a KUB
    • AP abdomen
    • AP Bladder
  46. Radiographic images for a retrograde urography
    • AP
    • posterior oblique view
  47. Radiographic images for a cystourethrography
    • AP
    • Posterior oblique view
  48. Basket insertion
    Performed to remove small free floating calculi in the kidney. The stone is trapped in the basket and dragged through the incision out of the body
  49. Ultrasound lithotripter
    • Small device that can be inserted into an opeining in the kidney and rest up against a calculus. Ultrasound vibrations are transmitted to the calculi whihc will break up the stone.
    • Suction device will remove fragments
  50. Intravenous urogram
    Examnination of the urinary system that involves an injection of iodinated contrast media to demonstrate the collecting system of the kidneys ureters & bladder. Images taken in time intervolts after injection
  51. Retrograde urogram
    Examination of the urinary system that involves an injection of iodinated contrast media into the kidneys and ureters through catheters placed into the urinary system during cystoscopy.Demonstrates anatomy of the collecting system of the kidney & ureters
  52. Cystography
    Examination of the bladder that involves injection of iodinated contrast media into a catheter inserted into the bladder & images are taken in various patient positions
  53. Voiding cystourethrography
    • Examination of the bladder & urethra that invovles injection of an iodinated contrast media into a catheter in the bladder.
    • The bladdder is filled the catheter is removed & patient is instructed to void on the fluoroscopic table . Images taken while patient is voiding
  54. Nephrostomy
    Examination that involves injection of drugs or for removal of calculi
  55. Nephrostography
    Examination involves injection of iodinated contrast media into a nephrostomy tube
  56. Lithotripsy (ESWL)
    Is a procedure in which shock waves will disintegrate calculi in the kidney without an incision -like lazor treatment`
  57. Hysterosalpingraphy
    is the radiographic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes that involves an injection of contrast media into acatheter inserted in the uterus

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