Chapter 11/Late adulthood
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Chapter 11/Late adulthood
When do men and women die and why?
50-59 - die from genetics
60-69 unhealthy men die
70-79 men traditionally die and unhealthy/genetics women die
80-89 women traditionally die
90+ die from genetics
When is late adulthood?
over age 65
What is Erickson's theory Ego Integrity vs. Dispair?
: feel whole, complete satisfied with achievements, serenity and contentment, associates with phychosocial maturity. Calm content healthy individuals.
: feel many wrong decisions were wrong, but now time is too short, bitter and unaccepting of coming death, expressed as anger and contempt for others, agrivated/agrivating miserable individuals
What is gerotranscendence?
Beyond ego integrity, cosmic, transcendent perspective, directed beyond self (forward outcome), heightened inner calm, quiet reflection
What is personality in late adulthood?
Secure, multifaceted self-concept
: alows seld-acceptance, continues to persue possible selves.
Shifts in some characteristics
: More agreeable, less sociable (mobility issues/hearing issues), Greater acceptance of change (avoid conflict)
What is spirituality and religion in late adulthood?
over 3/4 in the US say religion is very important
over half attend services weekly
many become more religous or spiritual with age (not all - about 1/4 get less religious, cultural, SES, gender differences)
Physical, psychological benefits
: social engagement, spiritual beliefs themselves
What are the factors in psychological well-being?
Controls versus dependency (maintain control as long as possible.
health - poor health (depression linked) - to suicide
Negative life changes (significant other dies)
Social support, interaction (help them provide social interaction skills, call them or take them to church)
How does suicide effect the elderly?
Suicide increases over lifespan
-Men more likely than women
-Whites most likely
Prompted by losses, terminal illnesses
-refusing food and medications
What kinds of housing arrangements do you have in late adulthood?
-own house (preferred and most control)
What is marriage like for late adulthood?
satisfaction peaks in late adulthood
-fewer stressful responsibilities
-faimess in household tasks
-emotional understanding, regulation
If dissatisfied, harder for women
Divorce, remarriage and cohabitation for late adulthood.
: fewer in late adulthood but increasing, hard to recover especially women, rates low decline with age
: Higher for divorced than widowed, late marriage stable
: growing trend, financial and family reasons, relationships stable.
How is widowhood taken by late adulthood?
Most stressful event of life for many
few remarry; most live alone - must cope with loneliness
reorganizing life is harder for men - most likely to remarry
How are relationships with adult children in late adulthood?
Quality of relationship affects elders physical and mental health.
Assist each other
-directions change towards children helping as parents age
-closeness affects willingness to help
-emotional support most often (parents try to avoid dependency)
Sex differences (daughter is closer)
What are the forms of elder maltreatment?
What decisions are for retirement?
Adequate retirement benefits
Compelling leisure interests
low work commitment
Routine, boring job
What are decisions that are against retirement?
Limited or no retirement benefits
Few leisure interests
High work commitment
Flexible work schedule
Pleasant, stimulating work
How do late adulthood adjust to retirement?
Most people adapt well - 30% report some adjustment difficulties
Factors in adjustment - financial worries, workplace factors, spouse influence, sense of personal control, social support
What leisure activities do for late adulthood?
Interests usually continue from earlier in life
-choose personally gratifying pursuits
-frequency and variety drop with age
Involvement in rewarding leisure linked to better health, reduced mortality
What is successful aging?
Minimize losses and maximize gains
-focus less on outcomes, more on processes and reaching personal goals
-some factors controllable, others not
-social policies can help