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When do men and women die and why?
- 50-59 - die from genetics
- 60-69 unhealthy men die
- 70-79 men traditionally die and unhealthy/genetics women die
- 80-89 women traditionally die
- 90+ die from genetics
When is late adulthood?
over age 65
What is Erickson's theory Ego Integrity vs. Dispair?
- Ego Integrity: feel whole, complete satisfied with achievements, serenity and contentment, associates with phychosocial maturity. Calm content healthy individuals.
- Despair: feel many wrong decisions were wrong, but now time is too short, bitter and unaccepting of coming death, expressed as anger and contempt for others, agrivated/agrivating miserable individuals
What is gerotranscendence?
Beyond ego integrity, cosmic, transcendent perspective, directed beyond self (forward outcome), heightened inner calm, quiet reflection
What is personality in late adulthood?
- Secure, multifaceted self-concept: alows seld-acceptance, continues to persue possible selves.
- Shifts in some characteristics: More agreeable, less sociable (mobility issues/hearing issues), Greater acceptance of change (avoid conflict)
What is spirituality and religion in late adulthood?
- over 3/4 in the US say religion is very important
- over half attend services weekly
- many become more religous or spiritual with age (not all - about 1/4 get less religious, cultural, SES, gender differences)
- Physical, psychological benefits: social engagement, spiritual beliefs themselves
What are the factors in psychological well-being?
- Controls versus dependency (maintain control as long as possible.
- health - poor health (depression linked) - to suicide
- Negative life changes (significant other dies)
- Social support, interaction (help them provide social interaction skills, call them or take them to church)
- Social interaction
How does suicide effect the elderly?
- Suicide increases over lifespan
- -Men more likely than women
- -Whites most likely
- Prompted by losses, terminal illnesses
- -retirement, widowhood
- Indirect methods
- -refusing food and medications
What kinds of housing arrangements do you have in late adulthood?
- Ordinary homes
- -own house (preferred and most control)
- -with family
- residental communities
- -congregative housing
- -lifecare communities
- Nursing homes
What is marriage like for late adulthood?
- satisfaction peaks in late adulthood
- -fewer stressful responsibilities
- -faimess in household tasks
- -joint leisure
- -emotional understanding, regulation
- If dissatisfied, harder for women
Divorce, remarriage and cohabitation for late adulthood.
- Divorce: fewer in late adulthood but increasing, hard to recover especially women, rates low decline with age
- Remarriage: Higher for divorced than widowed, late marriage stable
- Cohabitation: growing trend, financial and family reasons, relationships stable.
How is widowhood taken by late adulthood?
- Most stressful event of life for many
- few remarry; most live alone - must cope with loneliness
- reorganizing life is harder for men - most likely to remarry
How are relationships with adult children in late adulthood?
- Quality of relationship affects elders physical and mental health.
- Assist each other
- -directions change towards children helping as parents age
- -closeness affects willingness to help
- -emotional support most often (parents try to avoid dependency)
- Sex differences (daughter is closer)
What are the forms of elder maltreatment?
- Physical abuse
- Physical neglect
- Psychological abuse
- Sexual abuse
- Financial abuse
What decisions are for retirement?
- Adequate retirement benefits
- Compelling leisure interests
- low work commitment
- Declining health
- Spouse retiring
- Routine, boring job
What are decisions that are against retirement?
- Limited or no retirement benefits
- Few leisure interests
- High work commitment
- Good health
- Spouse working
- Flexible work schedule
- Pleasant, stimulating work
How do late adulthood adjust to retirement?
- Most people adapt well - 30% report some adjustment difficulties
- Factors in adjustment - financial worries, workplace factors, spouse influence, sense of personal control, social support
What leisure activities do for late adulthood?
- Interests usually continue from earlier in life
- -choose personally gratifying pursuits
- -frequency and variety drop with age
- Involvement in rewarding leisure linked to better health, reduced mortality
- -New achievements
- -Helping others
- -Social interactions
What is successful aging?
- Minimize losses and maximize gains
- -focus less on outcomes, more on processes and reaching personal goals
- -some factors controllable, others not
- -social policies can help