Intro to Forensics
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What is the definition for Forensic Science?
The application of science to criminal and civil law.
What did Francis Galton do?
Developed the methodology for classifying fingerprints.
What did Leone Latts do?
Founded the technique of blood grouping as a means of identification.
What did Calvin Goddard do?
Refined firearms identification by introducing the use of the comparison microscope.
What did Edmond Loccard do?
Created Locard's principle which states that whenever 2 objects of matter come in contact, an exchange occurs.
What is the largest crime lab in the world?
FBI Crime Lab in Quantico, VA
What is the Frye Standard?
Court must decide whether the questioned scientific procedure is "generally accepted" by the relevant scientific community.
What is the Daubert Standard?
Asserted that the prerequisite to the admissibility of scientific was not scientific community. Assigns a "gatekeeper".
Who is the "gatekeeper" who determines that an expert's testimony is based on reliable foundation and is relevant to the case?
The trial judge.
What is forensic odontology?
The study of teeth and bite marks in relation to evidence.
What is the CSI effect?
The expectation of juries that every case will have forensic evidence.
What are the 3 things required for qualification of an expert witness?
- 1. Experience
- 2. Education or Degree
- 3. Training
What are the sections of the Forensic Lab?
Latent Prints, Question Documents; Toxicology; Drug Identification; Firearms and Tool marks; Central Evidence Processing; Central Evidence Receiving; Biochemistry; Photography; Polygraph; and Trace Evidence.
What is the difference between an expert witness and a lay witness?
- An expert witness is a witness that has knowledge beyond that of a regular or lay person enanling them to give the testimony regarding an issue that requires expertise to understand.
- A lay witness gives testimony of their recollection accounts of what they have seen.
What do you NOT do at a crime scene?
Uneccessary walking around; moving or disturbing the bodies of the victims; touching items or surfaces likely to be removed from scene without permission from the chief investigator, eating or drinking, smoking, using toilet, washing or using towels at the scene, using telephone, allowing entry of unauthorized personel, comments to news media or public.
What are the different types of search patterns?
Spiral, Grid, Strip (Line), Quadrant, Wheel (Ray).
What does a rough sketch need to include?
An overhead "birds eye" view; Outline/ Dimensions of room, building, or area of interest; Location of pertinent evidence; Compass Direction; Not drawn to scale, but with acurate distances; two fixed reference points; Case identifier; Sketch artist; Date, time, location, weather, lighting; identify and assignments of personel present; key or legend.
Why do digital seam photos require special measures to be admissible?
Photoshop makes it able to change original photo.
What is the difference in enhancing and changing a photo?
Enhancing a photo takes the original picture and clears up specific areas. Changing a photo creates a new image sometimes using enhancements.
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