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What is Neuraminidase inhibitor?
Neuraminidase inhibitor inhibits Neuraminidase, an enzyme essential to the survival of a virus; it allows the release of the virus from the host cell.
What type of drug is Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)?
What are the indications for Oseltamivir?
- People who are allergic to vaccine (like egg allergy)
- when immunologic variant of virus is not covered by vaccine
- when outbreaks occur among unvaccinated individuals, like nursing homes
What are the major two indications for Oseltamivir?
Prevention of the flu and treatment of flu types A and B
If Oseltamivir is administered after exposure to the flu, when must it be administered for optimal effect?
w/n 12 hours
What type of drug is Peginterferon Alpha-2b? What is the primary indication?
Antiviral; Chronic Hep C
What is the MOA of Peginterferon alpha-2B? How do you remember it?
Binds to host receptors and inhibits entry into the cell. Viruses can't enter a cell because of their PEG leg.
What does the attachment of the interferon to the PEG do?
Prolongs half life so administration can only be once a week.
List side effects of Peginterferon alpha-2B. How do you remember them?
- Flu-like symptoms
- neuropsychiatric effects (depression, behavior issues)
- severe fatigue
- congestive heart failure
- * The virus is depressed b/c he has a peg leg and the flu
What type of drug is Acyclovir (Zovirax)? What are the major indications?
- Antiviral; herpes simplex virus, herpes zoster (shingles), varicella (chicken-pox)
- Prophylactic in bone marrow transplant
What are the renal issue involved with Acyclovir? How is the issue managed?
Reversible nephrotoxicity with IV administration; can be minimized with hydration
What are adverse effects of Acyclovir with oral administration?
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, vertigo
What is reverse transcriptase?
When viral RNA is converted to DNA within a host cell.
Does Acyclovir enter the CNS?
What is HAART?
- Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy
- Means an HIV drug cocktail
What are the principles of HAART?
maximize inhibition of viral replication and minimize drug toxicities
What is the MOA of Zidovudine-ZDA? (Retrovir NRTI)? What type of drug is it?
- MOA= prevents transcription of viral RNA to DNA
Why is Zidovudine so useful in minimizing cognitive symptoms of HIV?
It can cross the blood/brain barrier
What are the main adverse effects of Zidovudine? What are are the related nursing implications?
Severe anemia and neutropenia; monitor blood counts initially and monthly
When are antiviral medications effective? When are they not effective?
When the virus is multiplying, not when it is dormant.
What is a retrovirus?
A virus that must attach to a host to replicate, such as HIV.
How do you remember what Zidovudine is for what the side effects?
(german accent) Zid vu dine with da anemic AIDS patient? Then remember that neutropenia goes along with the sever anemia. or - Retrovir gives severe anemia and neutropenia.