Chapter 7

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  1. Thinking
    the mental activity that goes on in a brain when someone is processing info-organizing it, nderstanding it and communcicating it to others.
  2. mental images
    the representations that stand in for objects or events
  3. concepts
    ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events or ideas
  4. Superordinate
    the most genreal type
  5. formal concepts
    rigid structure and charcterists
  6. Natural concepts
    formed from real world experiences
  7. prototype concepts
    an example of a concept that closely matches the defing characteristics.
  8. what are two mental tools that can be used to solve problems?
    images and concepts
  9. problem solving
    the process that occurs when we need to reach a particular goal by behaving and thinking in certain ways.

    ME: the process that occurs when there is a goal or problem that needs to be achieved and that goal/problem is reached by behaving and thinking in certain ways
  10. What are the 5 methods used to solve problems?
    • 1. Trail and error
    • 2. algorithms
    • 3. Heuristics
    • 4. insight
    • 5. creativity
  11. what is the definition for the problem solving method of trial and error?
    trying one solution after another until finding one that works
  12. what is the definition for the problem solving method of algorithms?
    Specific step-by step procedures for solving certain types of problems
  13. what is the definition for the problem solving method of Heuristics?
    educated guss based on prior experices that helps narrow down the possible solutions to a problem
  14. what is the definition for the problem solving method of insight?
    when a solution to a particular problem arises when we are occupied with something else.
  15. what is the definition for the problem solving method of creativity?
    solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways.
  16. what are four possible problems with problem solving that may arise?
    • 1. Functional fixedness
    • 2. Mental set
    • 3. Confirmation bias
    • 4. convergent thinking
  17. what is the definition of functional fixedness?
    a block to problemsoving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions?
  18. what is the definition of Mental set
    the tendency to persist in using problem-solving patters that have worked in the past
  19. what is the definition of confirmation bias?
    the tendency to search for evidence that fits ones beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs
  20. what is the definition of convergent thinking?
    when a problem is seen as havin only one answer and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer by using previous knowledge and logic. usful for problem-soving, but can stymie creativive thinking.
  21. divergent thinking
    when we start from one point and come up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point
  22. what are four ways of stimulating divergent thinking?
    • 1. brainstorming
    • 2. journal writing
    • 3. free-writing
    • 4. mind or subject mapping
  23. what is the definition of intelligence?
    the ability to learn from ones experieces, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems
  24. what is emotional intelligence (eq)
    the awareness of and the ability to manage ones own emotions as well as the ability to be self motivated to be able to feel what others feel and to be socially skilled
  25. what are the four core abilities of emotional intellegence?
    • 1. Self-awareness
    • 2. Self-managment
    • 3. social awareness
    • 4. relatiionship managment
  26. what is self-awareness?
    the ability to recognize your own emotions and how they affect your thoughts and behavior, know your strength and weakness, and have selfconfidence.
  27. what is self-managment?
    the ability to control impulsive felling and behaviors, manage your emotions in healthy ways, take initiative, follow through on commitments, and adapt to chaging circumstances.
  28. what is social awareness?
    the ability to understand the emotions, needs and concernes of other peole, pick up on emotional cus, feel comfortable socially, and recognize the power dynamics in group or organization.
  29. Relationship management
    the ability to develop and maintain good relationships,communicate clearly, inspire and influece others, work well in a team, and manage conflict.
Card Set:
Chapter 7
2012-04-19 03:22:36
psychology chapter thinking cognition intelligence

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