Kidney Part one

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  1. What are the 2 primary functions of the kidney?
    • Regulation of body fluids
    • Make urine
  2. What is the endocrine function of the kidney?
    Secretes erythropoietin and renin
  3. What does renin do as part of homeostasis of the kidney?
    Maintain blood pressure
  4. What is the function of erythropoietin?
    Controls the rate of red blood cell formation
  5. What vitamin does the kidney activate and why is it so important?
    Activates vitamin D and it is necessary for calcium absorption in the small intestine.
  6. To regulate the body fluid composition what 2 things does the kidney balance?
    • water/ions
    • acid-base
  7. What is the number one nitrogenous waste product of the kidney?
    Where does it come from?
    • Urea
    • comes from protein
  8. What is the number 2 waste product of the kidney?
    Where does it come from?
    • Creatinine
    • Muscle activities
  9. What does hemoglobin breakdown into?
    Bilirubin and other urochromes
  10. What is the pH of urine?
  11. What is urine mostly composed of and how many grams of it is it secreted in 24 hours?
    • Urea
    • 30 grams
  12. What are the four main components of urine?
    • Urea
    • Creatinine
    • ammonia
    • Uric acid
  13. creatinine, ammonia, and uric acid make up how many grams of the urine in 24 hours?
    Less than 2 grams
  14. What are the four systems that deal with waste removal?
    • Urinanry system
    • Respiratory system
    • Integumentary system
    • Digestive system
  15. What type of epithelium is in the urinary system?
    transitional or urothelium
  16. what are the 3 layers of the ureter?
    • Mucosa
    • Muscularis
    • adventitia
  17. Is the urinary epithelium hypertonic or hypotonic?
  18. Where are the peristalsis waves initiated?
  19. Stretch receptors are what type of muscle ?
    Smooth muscle
  20. What 2 things does the mucosa layer of the ureters contain?
    • Lamina propria
    • transitional epithelium
  21. What is the inner muscularis layer of the ureter?
  22. What is the outer muscularis layer of the ureter?
  23. What different characteristic does the lower third of the uriter contain?
    Additional outer longitudinal layer
  24. what 3 things does the adventitia of the ureter contain?
    • Blood vessels
    • lymphatics
    • nerves
  25. An exay of the urinary system is also called?
  26. A bladder urger is activated at hoe many mL's?
  27. What is the size of a full bladder?
  28. What type of muscle is in the bladder?
    Detrusor muscle
  29. What is the donut shape organ in the beggining of urethra?
  30. What are the 3 layers of the bladder?
    • Mucosa
    • muscularis
    • adventitia
  31. What two things does the mucosa layer of the bladder contain?
    • Transitional epithelium
    • Lamina propria
  32. What are the 3 layers of the bladder and what type of tissue is it ?
    • Inner- longitudinal
    • outer- circular
    • outer- longitudinal
  33. What 3 things does the adventitia consist of ?
    • Blood vessels
    • lymph
    • nerves
  34. How long is the male urethra?
    20cm (8inches)
  35. What are the 3 layers of the make urethra and what size are they?
    • prostatic urethra 2.5cm
    • membrnous urethra 2cm
    • penile (spongy) urethra 15 cm
  36. Loss of bladder control also called?
  37. Voiding or urination is also called?
  38. Afferent nerve impulses go into?
    Sacral region of the spinal cord
  39. Efferent nerve impulses go into what nerves?
    pelvic splanchnic nerves
  40. The pelvic splanchnic nerves activate what?
  41. How does urination activate?
    Stretch receptors
  42. What muscle contracts the internal sphincter durring urinination and makes it relax?
    Detrusor muscle
  43. Most of urine is made in what part of the kidney?
    Corticle region
  44. What are the 3 layers of the kidney ?
    • Renal fascia
    • adipose
    • renal capsule
  45. What 3 things come out of the hilum of the kidney ?
    • Nerves
    • blood vessels
    • ureter
  46. Where are the nephrons located in the kidney ?
  47. what 2 things collect urine ?
    • calyces
    • pelvis
  48. What 2 things make up the lobe of the kidney?
    Pyramid and cortex cap
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Kidney Part one
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