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What are the 3 types of muscle mass in the body?
- (1) Skeletal - voluntary, attached to bones
- (2) Cardiac - involuntary, in the heart
- (3) Smooth - involuntary, in the walls of the hollow visceral organs (not the heart)
What are the 4 functions of muscle mass and which type of muscle play a role in each?
- (1) Movement
- Skeletal - locomotion and manipulation
- Cardiac - provides pressure for movement of blood
- Smooth - helps maintain BP
- (2) Postural Maintenance
- Skeletal - maintain posture
- (3) Joint Stability
- Skeletal - contribute
- (4) Heat generation
- Skeletal - responsible for most of heat generation
- (muscles generate heat when contract)
What are elasticity and plasticity?
- Elasticity = ability of a muscle to STRETCH
- Plasticity = ability to take new stretched form
What is the role of the T-tubules?
Transfer-tubules = allow nerve impulses to transfer from one side of the muscle to the other
Explain the role of ATP and Ca in contraction and relaxation
- ATP required for both
- ATP = energy supply for contraction - required for sliding of the filaments
- = required for separation of actin and myosin (relaxing)
- Ca triggers muscle contraction, if ATP is present, the muscle will contract
What are the 6 phases of muscle contraction?
- (1) Ca influx exposes binding sites on actin
- (2) Actin and myosin bind
- (3) Power stroke filaments slide over each other
- (4) ATP binds to x-bridges releasing actin
- (5) Hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and Pi
- (6) Ca transported to SR