Card Set Information

2012-04-19 11:15:35
PCM final

Flashcards for the PCM final including Joining Forces, Alternative medicine, the healthcare team,
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  1. What are some research difficulties involved with alternative medicine practices?
    • Challenging to apply conventional research methodologies like randomized controlled double blind studies
    • Studies do not consider "the whole has value beyond the sum of its parts"
    • Best treatment may be integrated with a combination of severl different interventions
  2. A type of medicine where non conventional approaches are secondary to a primary western medicine treatment is called
    Complimentary medicine
  3. ____ or ____ medicine is a type of medicine that implies a balanced whole person centered approach. It involves synthesis of conventional medicine, CAM modalitites and/or traditional medical systems. Aim is prevention and healing
    Holistic or integrative medicine
  4. ___ Medicine: is the changing of the focus of medicine to healing rather than disesae. It involves an understanding of the mind, spirit and community as well as teh body. it includes developing insight into the pts culture, beliefs, lifestyle that will help the provider understand how best to trigger the changes required to result in improved health
    Integrative medicine
  5. This act legally recognized botanicals as dietery supplements rather than drugs, described botanicals (gave them a deffinition), made it so that product lables can claim only general physiologic or theraputic effects rather than efficacy for special diseases
    Dietary Supplement Health Education Act DSHEA
  6. ____ is herb extracted in alcohol or other solvent. it is concentrated 1 gm of herb to 5-10ml of solvent
  7. ___ is a more concentrated version of a tincture
    Liquid extract
  8. ___ is a liquid extract that then has the solvent removed creating a 4:1 concentration usually then combinded with a large amount of fillers
    Solid Extract
  9. ___ is a boiled herb for 10-15 mins then drank usually used for roots, Barks and berries
  10. ___ is when you add plant to hot water and steep it for 3-5 mins
  11. Name two herbs contraindicated in pregnancy b/c of their effects of uterine vasoconstriciton
    • Ephedra
    • Vinca major (periwinkle)
  12. Name 2 herbs that are teratogenic if taken during pregnancy
    • American mandrake
    • Baptisia (wild indigo)
  13. Best botanical for menopause is what?
    Black cohosh
  14. Best dermatologic botanical/also helps with sleep
  15. Best botanical for premenstural syndrome
    Chaste Tree
  16. Best botanical for flu or URI
  17. Best botanical for circulatory disorders
  18. Best botanical for circulatory or coginitive d/o
  19. ___ is an herbal that is described as a panex or heal all
  20. Best botanical for BPH
    Saw Palmetto
  21. most hepatoprotective botanical is
    Milk Thistle
  22. Herbal supplement for depression or emotional balance
    St. John's wort
  23. What are the components of a low glycemic index diet
    lean protein, low fat, whol grains, legumes, nuts seeds dairy low glycemic vegitables (non starchy veggies), no artificial sweetners,
  24. What are some indications for a low glycemic index diet?
    • DM
    • CAD
    • Obesity
    • Breast Cancer
  25. What are some indications for a paleolithic diet?
    Obesity, NIDDM, hyperlipidemia, CV disease
  26. What is a paleolithic diet
    • Hunder gatherer diet (stone age diet)
    • Lower total fat
    • Hight in vitamin E, C, Ca and K and antioxidants and fiber
    • Low in Na
    • Very lean wild meat
    • Green leafy veggies, fruits and nuts
    • No dairy, grains, legumes, sugar, alcohol and processed foods
  27. ____ is a diet where disaccharides and polysaccarides are eliminated, people adhering to this diet cannot eat dairy, grains, legumes
    Specific Carbohydrate diet
  28. What is an indication for using the specific carbohydrate diet?
    Irritable bowel disease (hypersensitiviety and cellular immune response to saccarides)
  29. This diet has a modification of fat, sugar, antioxidants, allergic food and anti inflammaotyr culinary spices. It increases the omega-3 fatty acid intake and decreases the omega 6 fatty acids, saturated fats and trans fatty acids. It also eliminates foods high in glycemic index
    Anti-inflammatory diet
  30. Which diet features an increase in anit-inflammatory spices such as ginger, rosemary, tumeric oregano, cayenne, garlic onion clove and nutmeg?
    Anti-inflammatory diet
  31. This diet eliminates wheat, rye, barley and oats and replaces them with rice, corn, buckwheat
    Gluten free/casien free/soy free diet
  32. What is the indication for a gluten free diet?
    Celiac disease, irritable bowel disease, inflammatory bowel disease
  33. This alternative method technique practiced by chiropracters corrects misalignment of the vetebra
    Vertebral adjustments
  34. What are some contraindications to being treated by a chiropracter?
    • Infants
    • Women with osteoporosis
    • High risk pregnancy
    • Bleeding disorders
    • Bone fractures or metastases
  35. What type of education do chiropracters recieve?
    • 4-5 yrs of education
    • first half is basic science then latter half is physical and lab dx with neuro, ortho, geri, peds, gyn, physiotherapy, radiology and nutrition
    • Graducates recieve a Dr of chiropractic
    • There is a board exam
    • they take CMEs
    • No Rx power
    • NOT overseen by the AMA
  36. What are some indications to see a chiropracter?
    • Actue and chronic lower back pain
    • lumbar disc herniation
    • acute and chronic neck pain
    • carpal tunnel syndrome
    • cervicogenic HA
    • Migraines
    • Sinusitis/otitis media
    • Regulations of autonomic nervous system
  37. What are some possible adverse effects from chiropracting?
    • Cauda equina syndrome after lumbar spine manipulation, neurogenic bowel and bladder, saddle anesthesia b/l leg weakness and sensory changes
    • CVA after cervical manipulation
    • spontaneous vetebral artery dissection
  38. ____ is the practice that involves stimulation of specific body pints by insertion and manipulation of fine needles
  39. de Qi means what in chinese?
    the chi has arrived it refers to the tingling sensation associated with accupuncutre
  40. When recieving acupuncture these things are discouraged...
    Alcohol, recreational drugs, heavy work, workouts, fasting, or feasting
  41. What is "rational" for acupuncture?
    Teh body has channels of streaming Qi which is the blood and fluid that carry out internal organ function, if the channels are obstructed ther is pain, congestion and illness, acutpuncure stimulats the flow and suplies where there is a dificency a drain for this fluid which facilitates ultimate healing
  42. What are some indications for acupuncture?
    • Nicotine/cocaine addition
    • Stroke rehab
    • Tension, migrain HA
    • Pregnancy, nausea, back pain, shortens labor pain and labor
    • Higher implantation rates for IVF
    • Pain (tennis elbow neck shoulder rotator cuff knee osteoarthritis, LBP, carpal tunne syndorome)
    • Asthma
  43. T or F acupuncture providers have to be certified in clean needle training before becomming licenced
  44. How many years of schooling are needed to become an acupunctureist
    in the US 2-4 yrs of undergrad with 3 yrs of professional acupuncture training
  45. ___ is a subset of acupuncture where the skin is pressed in strokes by a round edged instrument resulting in red raised petichiae called sha
    Gua sha
  46. Adaptogenic therapy means what??
    Warming pts who have cold conditions and cooling pts who have warm conditions ( a component of gua sha)
  47. ___ ____ is when a vaccume is created in a glass, bamboo or gourd cup by lighting a ball of alcohol soaked cotton and passing it inside the cup which is placed on the skin
    Fire cupping
  48. What is the rational behind cupping?
    remove blood stasis
  49. _____ is the buring of fiber precipitate of artemisia vulgaris (common mugwart) either directly on the skin or above the area
    Direct and indirect moxibustion
  50. ____ is when a small electrical current is applied to the accupuncture needle to provide stimulation to the accupuncture site and enhance the effect
    Electrical stimulation
  51. What is an indication for electrical stimulation accupuncture
    acute and chronic MS
  52. _____ is when a seven star needle is tapped with equal pressure into the skin, it is used "in the care of children" to treat eczema
    Plum blossom
  53. ____ involves the surface and musculoskeletal manipulation of musculoskeletal system. It is similar to western massage. The area is brushed, kneaded, rolled and pressed in areas between each fo the joints (known as the eight gates) to open the body s defensive (wei) chi and get the energy moving in teh meridians as well as the muscles
    Tui na
  54. T or F herbalists are board certified by NCCAOM
  55. ___ is translated as "life knowledge" or "the science of life" and has a goal of balance in life with the belief that health is the state of enjoying uniterrupted physical, mental and spiritual happiness
    Ayurvedic Medicine
  56. ____ is the branch of alternative medicine that stresses achievement of virtue (dharma), wealth (artha), enjoyment (kama), and salvation (moksha)
    Ayurvedic medicine
  57. T or F in the US there is an official licening process with state certification board for people administering Ayurvedic medicine
  58. In Ayurvedic medicine what is the dosha characterized by space/air, is respoinsible for mental creativity, imagination, indecisiveness, exhillaration, fear, insecurity and has a GI location in the colon?
    Vata dosha
  59. In Ayurvedic medicine what is the dosha characterized by Fire/water, intelligence, confidence, leadership, excitement, anger, jeleousy, small intestine
    Pittia dosha
  60. In Ayurvedic medicine what is the dosha characterized by earth/water, memory, tranquility, devotion, love, patience, greed and is located in the stomach
    Kapha dosha
  61. What are the 5 panchakarma therapies?
    • Emesis Tx
    • Purgation tx (mild laxative to lubricate intestines)
    • Enemat Tx (colon cleaning)
    • Nasal Tx (nasal drops, lavage, medicated oils, inhialants)
    • Bloodletting (by leach or venipuncture)
  62. What are some indications for using Ayurvedic medicine?
    Obestiy, HTN, CAD
  63. ____ yoga focuses on postures breathing exercies and meditation it was founded in 2,000 bc in india, and it focuses on self awareness with postures to purify the body in preparation for higher states of concious and medication
  64. What are some indications for doing Hatha yoga?
    Asthma, CV disease, BM, HTN, HA, mental disorders, OA, pain , RA, seizures, stress
  65. ___ ___ is a series of exercises that dates back to china 5,000 yrs ago and was originally a series of exercises to be practiced after a strenuous day it enhances teh flow of energy or Qi in the body and emphasisez balence and harmony through the continuous slow motions rhythmic flexion of the legs and extension of the arms and shifting of weight
    Tai Chi
  66. In Tai Chi __ is the vital energy behind all processes pertainign to the body and midn and spirit. It is the energy amtter, vital energy or life force. It emanates through the energy pathways or meridians which cover the body like a network system
  67. ___ is part of chinese medicine is a part of chinese medicine that consits of medication physical movment and physical exercise
  68. ___ is the skill of working with Qi
  69. What are some risk factors for PTSD?
    • female gender
    • adverse childhood experiences
    • prior psychiatric problems
    • lower level of eductation
    • h/o previous psychiatric problems
    • lower socioeconomic status
    • minority race
    • lenght spent in service
  70. A soldier returns for Iraq with cc of sleeplessness he says his wife has complained that since coming home he has been angry, irritable and more aggressive than usual he says he has felt a sense of isolation/numbness what do you think he has?
  71. What are some symptoms of PTSD?
    • sleeplessness
    • anger, irritability, aggressive/violent
    • anxiety, startle reflex that is exaggerated
    • sense of isolation
    • emotionally numb
    • Survior's guilt
    • Avoidance of people places or things that serve as reminders of the incident
    • difficulty on anniversary of incidents
    • flashbacks
    • nightmares
    • stituations smells and places that may trigger a flashback
  72. What is the first criterion for PTSD? (criterion A)
    exposure to a traumatic event in which both of the following have been present: experienced, witnessed, or ben confronted with an event or events that involve actual or threatened death or serious injury or a threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others, persons response involve intense fear helplessness or horror
  73. What are the indications for practicing Qigong?
    Effects on stroke, HTN, mortality decreased cholesterol levels, circulation, bone density, improved coagulation, fibrinolyiss, blood viscosity, RBC, potential effect on cancer, increased blood flow to the brain
  74. Criterion B for PTSD is what?
    Intrusive recollection
  75. What is intrusive recolection?
    • Traumatic event is persitently re-experienced in at least one way
    • Intense psychological distress at exposure to internal and external cues that symbolize/resemble an aspect of the traumatic event
    • physicologic reactivity upon exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the truamatic event
  76. What are some of the ways intrusive recollections can manifest?
    • recurrent/intruisve distressing recollections
    • recurrent distressing dreams or events
    • acting out/ feeling recurrence of the event
    • psychological distress with internal/external cues similar to event
    • physiological reactivity
  77. What is the third criterion (C) of PTSD??
    Avoidance/ numbing
  78. Avoidance/numbing in PTSD is indicated by 3 of what occurences?
    • Efforts to avoid thoughts, feeling or conversitons asociated with trauma
    • efforts to avoid activities, places, or people who arous recollections of trauma
    • Inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma
    • markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities
    • feeling of detatchment or estrangement from others
    • restricted range of affect
    • sense of foreshortened future
  79. What is the 4th/final criterion for PTSD (criterion D)
    perisitent symptoms of increaseing arousal not present before the trauma
  80. What are some manifestations of hyperarousal in PTSD?
    • Difficulty falling or staying asleep
    • irritability or outbursts of anger
    • difficulty concentrating
    • hyper-vigilance
    • exaggerated startle response
  81. What are some common co-morbidities with PTSD?
    Depression, suicidal intent, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, social problems
  82. What are some PTSD treatments?
    • Cognitive Behavioral Thearapy (CBT)
    • Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy (EMDR)
    • Pharmacological treatments: SSRI, Other antidepresants, anticonvulsants (make sure you follow up closely with pharmacologic therapy in the initation phase of the perscription their mood can be more unstable)
  83. What are some Pharmacological treatments for PTSD?
    • SSRIs
    • Sertraline (zoloft) dose escalation effect must taper to d/c
    • Paroxetine (Paxil) benifit over 20 mg? must taper to d/c
  84. What is a of a TBI?
    • Blow or "jolt" to the head: acceleration/deceleration force
    • disrupts the normal function of the brain
    • severity of TBI is determied at the time of the injury
    • Classifications are mild, moderateor severe or by GCS
  85. What is the eitiology of a TBI? What are the most common eitiologies in the military?
    • head struck by solid object
    • head strieks object
    • brain acceleration/decelleration sans external force
    • FB that penitrates brain
    • force generate form an event a blast explosion etc
    • Leading cause in military: Blasts, MVC, fragments, falls bullets
  86. What are the symptoms of TBI?
    • headache/dizziness
    • sleep disturbances
    • balance problems
    • nausea/vomiting
    • fatigue
    • visual distrubances/light sensitivity
    • ringing in the ears
    • Cognigitve signs:
    • slowed thinking, poor concentration, memory/attention problems/ word finding problems
  87. What are teh cognitive signs of TBI?
    • Slowed thinking
    • poor concentration
    • memor/attention problems
    • word finding problems
  88. What are the emotional signs of TBI?
    Anxiety, depression, irritability, mood swings
  89. What are some concering signs and symptoms with a TBI?
    • worsening headache
    • worsening balance
    • double vision or other vision changes
    • decreaseing level of altertness
    • increased disorientation
    • repeated vomiting
    • seizures
    • unusal behavior
    • amnesia/memory problems
  90. What 4 things are used to rate severity of a TBI?
    • Loss of conciousness
    • change in consciousness/mental state
    • Post traumatic amnesia
    • Glasgow coma scale
  91. What are 4 considerations in TBI that you need to think about before you let them go back into play or into service?
    • identification of neurologic emergencies
    • identification fo high risk indivituals for second impact syndrome
    • recognition and managment of neurologic sequelae
    • prevention of cumulative and chronic brain injury
  92. This imaging modality is best for normal brains, microbleeds, focal non-specific areas of subcortical white matter
  93. This imaging modality is best/used for small contusions extra axial hematomas, subcortical hemmorhages
  94. With a TBI what imaging study do you order first?
    CT and then get an MRI if there are abnormal findings on CT
  95. What are the first 3 prioities/goals in a TBI? especially with a blast injury
    • ID other life threating injuries
    • prevent further secondary brain injury
    • treat identified mass lesions
  96. How would you treat increased intracrainal pressure?
    Mannitol or drain
  97. What nonvisible part of the body do you HAVE to check on a pt who is brought in on a backboard?
    the back! once it is safe to flip them you need to check it out back there and make sure nothing is wrong
  98. What do you not want to do in a pt who may have increased intracranial pressure?
    DO NOT hyperventilate
  99. For every soldier who dies on the field how many will commit suicide?
  100. This was a form of alternative medicine developed in germany in the 19th century by samuel Hahnenman, it emphasizes the holistic approach and offers indivicual approaches for specific complaints
    Homeopathic medicine
  101. What is the principle of simlar?
    • a substane that can cause symptoms in the healthy person can stimulate self healing int eh person with similar response to an illness
    • preparations are diulted in water initally b/c they may cause more of the same symptoms
  102. What are the components of homeopathic evaluation?
    • mental/emotional sx (mood, anxiety, fear)
    • Sensation( character)
    • location (side of body affected)
    • direction (radiation)
    • concomitant sx
    • modalities (triggers aggrevating and alleviating factors)
    • intensity (compared to the sx the pt has has before)
    • duration
    • onset (actual date and time of sx)
    • sequence of events (circumstances before the pt has sx)
  103. What are the indications for using homeopathic medicine?
    • Otitis media
    • allergic rhinitis
    • acute diarrheal syndrome
    • asthma
    • croup
    • depression