Critical Thinking Ch10

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Mattyj1388
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148597
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Critical Thinking Ch10
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2012-05-03 14:07:31
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College Desert chapter 10
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General information, deffinitions, etc.
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  1. Argument (Recognizing Arguments)
    A form of thinking in which certain statements (reasons) are offered in support of another statement (a conclusion).
  2. Reasons (Recognizing Arguments)
    statements that support another statement (conclusion), justify it, or make it more probable.
  3. Conclusion (Recognizing Arguments)
    A statement on the basis of other statements (reasons) offered as evidence for it.
  4. Cue Words (Recognizing Arguments)
    Signal that a reason is being offered in support of a conclusion or that a conclusion is being announced on the basis of certain reasons.
  5. Truth (Evaluating Arguments)
    How true are the supporting reasons?
  6. Validity (Evaluating Arguments)
    Do the reasons support the conclusion?
  7. Valid Argument (Evaluating Arguments)
    The reasons support the conclusion so that the conclusion follows from the reasons offered.
  8. Invalid Argument (Evaluating Arguments)
    The reasons do not support the conclusions, so that the conclusion does not follow from the reasons offered.
  9. Sound Arguments (Evaluating Arguments)
    True reasons/ valid structure.
  10. Unsound Arguments (Evaluating Arguments)
    • 1. False reasons / valid structure.
    • 2. True reasons / invalid structure.
    • 3. False reasons / invalid structure.
  11. Deductive Arguments (Understanding deductive arguments)
    One reason from premises that are known or assumed to be true, to a conclusion that follows necessarily from those premises.
  12. Syllogism (Understanding deductive arguments)
    • consists of two supporting premises and a conclusion.
    • 1. Applying a general rule
    • P1 = premise 1. C. = conclusion
    • P1: All A are B P1: All men are mortal
    • P2: S is an A P2: Socrates is a man
    • C. Therefore S is a B C. Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
  13. Modus Ponens (Understanding deductive arguments)
    • Affirming the antecedent
    • P1: If A then B
    • P2: Yes A
    • C. Therefore, B
    • ie:
    • P1: If we are in Brussels, then we are in Europe
    • P2:We are in Brussels
    • C. Therefore, we are in Europe.
  14. Modus Tollens (Understanding deductive arguments)
    • Denying the consequent.
    • P1: If A then B If you love me, you will marry me.
    • P2: Not B You do not want to marry me.
    • C. Therefore Not A. Therefore you do not love me.
  15. Disjunctive syllogism (Understanding deductive arguments)
    • Presenting several alternatives.
    • P1: Either A or B
    • P2: Not A
    • C. therefore B
  16. Inductive Reasoning
    One reasons form premises that are known to be true to a conclusion that is supported by these premises but does not follow necessarily from them.
  17. Empirical (based on data) Generalizations
    • A general statement about an entire group made on the basis of observing some members of the group.
    • A. Is the sample known?
    • B. Is the sample sufficient?
    • C. Is the sample representative?
  18. F A L L A C I E S
    • unsound arguments that are often persuasive because 1. They appeal to our emotions and prejudices, 2. Appear to be logical, 3. They support conclusions that we that we want to believe are accurate.
    • A. Hasty Generalization – A general conclusion is reached that is based on a very small sample.
    • B, Sweeping generalization – generalizations that are true, in most cases, have deliberately been applied to instances that are clearly intended to be exceptions to the generalization because of special features the exception possess.
    • C. False Dilemma (either or dilemma) - asked to choose between two extreme alternatives without being able to consider additional options.
  19. Hasty Generalization (FALLACIES)
    A general conclusion is reached that is based on a very small sample.
  20. Sweeping generalization (FALLACIES)
    • generalizations that are true, in most cases, have deliberately been applied to instances that are clearly
    • intended to be exceptions to the generalization because of special features the exception possess.
  21. False Dilemma (either or dilemma) (FALLACIES)
    asked to choose between two extreme alternatives without being able to consider additional options.
  22. Causal fallacies
    • A. Questionable cause – A causal relationship for which no real evidence exists. Superstitious examples.
    • B. Misidentifications of the cause – uncertainty concerning what is cause and what is effect.
    • C. Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc (after it therefore because of it) – A situation in which because two things occur close together in time, we assume one caused the other. Forget vitamins get sick.
    • D. Slippery Slope – One “undesirable“ action will lead to a another worse action, which will lead to another, and another, etc. skip one class skip more classes.
  23. Questionable cause (Causal fallacies)
    A causal relationship for which no real evidence exists. Superstitious examples.
  24. Misidentifications of the cause (Causal fallacies)
    uncertainty concerning what is cause and what is effect.
  25. Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc (after it therefore because of it) (Causal fallacies)
    A situation in which because two things occur close together in time, we assume one caused the other. Forget vitamins get sick.
  26. Slippery Slope (Causal fallacies)
    One “undesirable“ action will lead to a another worse action, which will lead to another, and another, etc. skip one class skip more classes.
  27. Fallacies of relevance
    • A. Appeal to authority – “Authority” may not be qualified to give an expert opinion. A.T.A.
    • B. Appeal to Fear – threats take the place of reasons that provide evidence for the conclusion. A.T.F.
    • C. Appeal to Flattery – the design to influence the thinking of others by appealing to their vanity instead of providing relevant evidence your point of view. A.T.F.I.
    • D. Appeal to ignorance – Asked to disprove a claim; if unable, argument asserted to be true. A.T.I.
    • E. Appeal to personal attack (ad hominem Latin) - You ignore the issues of the problem, and focus on the personal qualities of the person making the argument. A.T.P.A.
    • F. Appeal to pity – Design to make you feel sorry and agree with the conclusion. A.T.P.
    • G. Appeal to Tradition – Arguments that a practice or way of thinking is “right” or “better” simply because it is older, it is traditional, or has “always been that way”. A.T.T.
    • H. Band Wagon – relies on the uncritical acceptance of others opinions. In this case, because everyone believes it.
    • I. Begging the question – (circular reasoning) - instead of providing relevant evidence in support of your point of view, this form of reasoning goes in a circle by assuming the truth of what it is supposedly proving.
    • J. Red Herring (wild goose chase, smokescreen) – Introducing an irrelevant topic to divert attention from the original issue being discussed.
    • K. Special Pleading – occurs when someone attempts to make to make themselves a special exception, without sound justification, to the reasonable application of standards principles, and expectations.
    • L. Straw man – You attack someone’s point of view by creating an exaggerated, “straw-man” version of their position, and then you knock down the straw man that you just created.
    • M. Two wrongs make a right – attempting to justify morally questionable action by arguing that it is in response to another wrong action. In other words, that two wrongs make a right.
  28. Appeal to authority (Fallacies of relevance)
    “Authority” may not be qualified to give an expert opinion. A.T.A.
  29. Appeal to Fear (Fallacies of relevance)
    Appeal to Fear – threats take the place of reasons that provide evidence for the conclusion. A.T.F.
  30. Appeal to Flattery (Fallacies of relevance)
    the design to influence the thinking of others by appealing to their vanity instead of providing relevant evidence your point of view. A.T.F.I.
  31. Appeal to ignorance (Fallacies of relevance)
    Asked to disprove a claim; if unable, argument asserted to be true. A.T.I.
  32. Appeal to personal attack (ad hominem Latin) (Fallacies of relevance)
    You ignore the issues of the problem, and focus on the personal qualities of the person making the argument. A.T.P.A.
  33. Appeal to pity (Fallacies of relevance)
    Design to make you feel sorry and agree with the conclusion. A.T.P.
  34. Appeal to Tradition (Fallacies of relevance)
    Arguments that a practice or way of thinking is “right” or “better” simply because it is older, it is traditional, or has “always been that way”. A.T.T.
  35. Band Wagon (Fallacies of relevance)
    relies on the uncritical acceptance of others opinions. In this case, because everyone believes it.
  36. Begging the question (circular reasoning) (Fallacies of relevance)
    instead of providing relevant evidence in support of your point of view, this form of reasoning goes in a circle by assuming the truth of what it is supposedly proving.
  37. Red Herring (wild goose chase, smokescreen) (Fallacies of relevance)
    Introducing an irrelevant topic to divert attention from the ginal issue being discussed.
  38. Special Pleading (Fallacies of relevance)
    occurs when someone attempts to make to make themselves a special exception, without sound justification, to the reasonable application of standards principles, and expectations.
  39. Straw man (Fallacies of relevance)
    You attack someone’s point of view by creating an exaggerated, “straw-man” version of their position, and then you knock down the straw man that you just created.
  40. Two wrongs make a right (Fallacies of relevance)
    attempting to justify morally questionable action by arguing that it is in response to another wrong action. In other words, that two wrongs make a right.

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