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what is a reflex arc?
the most basic form of conduction pathway
what ae the 2 common types of reflex arc?
- 1.monosynaptic reflex arc
- 2.bisynaptic reflex arc
what is monosynaptic reflex arc? give and example
consistes of 2 neurons with only one synapse
ex:patellar tendon reflex
what is a bisynaptic reflex arc? and give and example
consists of 8 neurons and 2 synapses
ex:response to extreme heat
what is a reflex?
a quick, involuntary response to a stimulus-> transmitted over a reflex arc
reflexes are good diagnostic tools to evaluate conditions of nervous system categories of reflexes. what are those categories?
- 1.superficial reflexes
- 2.deep reflexes
- 3.pathological reflexes
what aresuperficial reflexes?
- involved cutaneous stimulation
- a)abdominal reflex->causes contraction of abdominal muscles
what are deep reflexes?
- involve stimulation of deep structures like tendons
- a)patellar tendon reflex, achille's tendon reflex, biceps reflex, triceps reflex,etc.
what are pathological reflexes?
reflexes that reveal specific damage info about the nervous system
what is a babinski reflex?
stimulus-> stroking the lateral aspect of the sole of foot from the heel toward the toe
what is a positive babinski?
dorsiflexion of the great(big) toe-> with or with out slight fanning of other toes
- this means incomplete development of the nervous system:
- 1.normal in infants up until about 18 months of age-> indicates incomplete myolination
- 2.in adults it indicates trama or disease of the "corticospinal tract"