Mrt 249

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Author:
marlasherman
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148627
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Mrt 249
Updated:
2012-04-20 13:32:03
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Final exam
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  1. What structures make up the zygapophyseal joint
    Articular surfaces (processes) of adjacent vertebrae
  2. What structures make up the intervertebral foramen
    Intervertebral notches of adjacent vertebrae
  3. What emerges from the intervetebral foramen
    Spinal nerves & vessels
  4. At what level do the intervertebral discs begin
    C2/C3-L5/S1
  5. Which vertebrae have alternate names
    • C1 =atlas
    • C2=axis
    • C7 = vertebral prominens
  6. What is the largest blood vessel in the neck
    Internal jugular vein ( commonly right is the largest of the two)
  7. Which salivary gland is closely related to the ramus of the mandible
    Parotid
  8. At what level does the common carotid artery bifurcate
    C4
  9. Which vessel passes through the transverse foramen of the upper six cervical vertebrae
    Vertebral artery
  10. What structures are directly lateral to the trachea at the level of C6
    Thyroid glands
  11. At what level of C4 which vessel is the most lateral
    External jugular vein
  12. At what level does the larynx end
    C6
  13. Which two vessels form the superior vena cava
    Right and left brachiocephalic
  14. The sternal angle corresponds to which vertebral level
    T4-5
  15. List the structures that form the thoracic inlet
    • 1st thoracic vertebra
    • 1st pair of ribs
    • Cartilage
    • Manubrium
  16. List the structures that form the thoracic outlet
    • 12th thoracic vertebra
    • 12th rib
    • Costal margins
    • Xiphoid process
  17. At what level are the sternoclavicular joints found
    T2-3
  18. Where are the costophrenic angles (recesses) located
    Lateral angle at the base of the lungs and ribs
  19. What is the area of bifurcation of the right and left main stem bronchi called and at what level of of the thorax does it correspond to
    • Carnia
    • T4-5 ( sternal angle)
  20. Which main stem bronchus is the largest and most vertical
    Right
  21. What part of the lung is seen on the first axail section of the chest
    Apex
  22. Which structure separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
    Diaphragm
  23. What are the crurae of the diaphram
    Two tendons of the diaphragm that attach the diaphragm the diaphragm to the lumbar spine
  24. What structures pass through the three openings in the diaphram
    • Aortic hiatus-aorta,azygous vein & thoracic duct
    • Caval hiatus - inferior vena cava & right phrenic nerve
    • Esophageal hiatus -esophagus and vagus nerve
  25. In which part of the mediastinum is the thymus found
    Superior and anterior portion
  26. Which chamber of the heart has the thickest myocardium
    Left ventricle
  27. In viewing a CT scan of the entire chest starting from the apex of the lungs which major pulmonary vessel would you see first
    Pulmonary A
  28. Which chamber of the heart is directly posterior to the body of the sternum
    Right ventricle
  29. State the three vessels arising off the arch of the aorta from antrior to posterior
    • Brachiocephalic
    • Left common cartid
    • Left subclavian
  30. Which chamber of the heart is the most posterior
    Left atrium
  31. Which chamber of the heart does the pulmonary artery arise
    right ventricle
  32. Which chamber of the heart is just anterior to the esphagus
    Left atrium
  33. What is the WW and WL for viewing the mediastinum
    325wwx & 50WL
  34. What is the WW and WL for viewing the lungs
    2000ww & -500wl
  35. What is the common slice thickness and slice interval for the chest
    1cm x 1cm ( 10mm x 10mm)
  36. Besides using 1mm slice thickness and interval, which two post processing methods will help to demonstrate a small nodule
    • Edge enhancement
    • Magnifaction
    • You could rescan the lung again
    • Use a small FOV
  37. Why is contrast media injected for CT scans of the chest
    Flow of contrast through the vessesls
  38. What are the advantages of dynamic scanning of the chest
    Reduces patient movement
  39. What is the disadvantage of dynamic scanning of the chest
    Reconstruction images do not appear until after the dynamic sequence is completed
  40. What is volume scanning also know as
    Spiral or helical CT scan
  41. List the advantages of spiral CT of the chest
    • Useful in detecting small lesions
    • Shorter examination times
    • Scan the entire chest in one breath
    • Decreased amount of contrast injected
  42. An important landmark for the chest is the sternal angle. Which structure is not found at this level
    Highest pint of the arch of the aorta
  43. When viewing axial sections of the chest from the apex of the lung to the base which structure is seen first
    Pulmonarty artery
  44. At the level of T4-5 which structure is the most posterior
    Esophagus
  45. Which two veins join to form the superior vena cava
    Right and left brachiocephalic
  46. The head of the rib articulates with the thoracic vertebra at the
    Facet on the body of the vertebrae
  47. The right crus of the diaphragm crosses posterior to the
    Inferior vena cava
  48. The aorta arises off the left ventricle and is directed
    Posteriorly to the left
  49. Which joints are found between the superior and inferior articular processes
    Zygapophyseal joint
  50. List three features unique to the cervical spine
    • Transverse foramina
    • Bifid spinous process
    • Over lapping vertebral bodies
  51. List the features unique to the thoracic spine
    Presence of facets for articularion with ribs
  52. What is the short column of bone found between the superior and inferior articular processes in typical vertebral called
    Articular pillar
  53. What term used for the articular pillar
    Lateral mass
  54. What is the portion of lamina located between the superior and inferior articular processes called
    Pars interarticularis
  55. What do the superior and inferior vertebral notches of adjacent vertebrae join together to form
    Intervertebral foramen
  56. List the inner and outer aspects of an intervertebral disc
    • Annulus fibrousus
    • Nucleus pulposus
  57. What is the condition involving a slipped disk is correctly reffered to as
    Herniated nucleus pulposus(HNP)
  58. What would normally be found within the central canal of the spinal cord
    Cerebrospinal fluid
  59. The extension of the meninges inferior to the ternimation of the spinal cord is called the
    Filum terminale
  60. The outermost layer of the meninges is the
    Dural mater
  61. What would normally be found inmmediately surrounding the central canal of the spinal cord
    Gray mater
  62. Cerebrospinal fluid normally circulates in the
    Subarachnoid space
  63. In the adult the spinal cord extends from the medula to the
    L1-L2
  64. The epidural space contains
    Fat
  65. To do a lumbar puncture the needle is inserted into the
    Suvarachnoid space
  66. The subdural space commonly contains
    Interstitail fluid
  67. The highly vascular innermost layer of the meninges is the
    Pia mater
  68. Is IV contrast used for CT of the spine
    Yes see CAR guidelines
  69. Why is the gantry angled for transverse scans of the lumbar spine
    To place beam perpendicular to long axis of spine
  70. What direction would the gantry be angled for scans of the lumbar spine
    Usually caudally as patient would be placed in scanner feet first
  71. Spinal nerves are part of the central nervous system
    True or False
    False
  72. The arachnoid layer of the meninges is avascular
    True of False
    True
  73. The subdural space normally contains CSF
    True or False
    False
  74. The spinal cord extends from the medulla to the coccyx
    True or False
    Fasle
  75. The spinal tap is done to remove CSF from the central canal of the spinal cord
    True or False
    False
  76. The nervous tissue surrounding the central canal of the spinal cord is gray matter
    True or False
    True
  77. The outermost layer of the spinal cord is teh arachnoid mater
    True or False
    False
  78. In the adult the spinal cord extends from the medulla to L2
    True or False
    True
  79. The tapering end of the spinal cord below the lumbar enlargement is called the conus medullaris
    True or False
    True
  80. The roots of the spinal nerves that angle inferiorly in the vertebral canal from the end of the spinal cord from the cauda equina
    True or False
    True

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