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List the main examples you would use to show how Edward IV dealt with opposition in his second reign.
- Execution of Henry VI (1471)
- Death of Prince Edward at Tewkesbury (1471)
- Execution of Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset after Tewkesbury (also death of his bro John in battle)
- Execution of troublesome and embarrassing Clarence (1478).
- NO opposition or open rebellion during his second reign.
Compare how Edward dealt with Henry VI in his first reign and his second.
- In first, 1465, Henry was captured, but Edward failed to kill him. (perhaps overconfident)
- However, 1471, Edward ordered Henry's execution within 3 months of him being sent to the tower. (on 21 May 1471)
Compare how Edward dealt with intractable Lancastrians during his first and second reign.
- 1471 - Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, executed after Tewkesbury (John, his brother was also killed in battle).
- However, in 1461 - Edward forgave/pardoned him after Towton, alongside Sir Ralph Percy and Earl of Oxford. (They later rebelled against Edward in Lancastrian rebellions in 1464)
- 1469 - furthermore Henry Percy let out of prison and restored to his earldom of Earl of Northumberland in 1469.
Explain the significance of how Edward dealt with the troublesome Clarence in his second reign.
- Finally executed him in 1478 after Parliament found him guilty of high treason and passing Act of Attainder. - Compared to 1469 where Edward failed to punish Clarence or Warwick after Edgecote.
- THAT SAID, Edward was still remarkably generous to Clarence (eg. Courtnay estates and Richmond). Also sign of leniency showed when Edward allowed Clarence to be executed privately to save him of public humiliation.
- Could partially be justified because Clarence showed support (which was vital) in 1471 when Edward landed in England. Clarence declared support with army of 12,000.
Relations with the nobility.
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Briefly explain why Edward's relations with the nobility in his second reign was successful.
- Built up a small group of powerful magnates (related to, or close to him), who controlled different regions. In this way, Edward was able to govern the kingdom effectively. But a success in the short-term.
- eg. Gloucester effective in north; Hastings served well in the Midlands etc.
Give examples of some titles and patronage Richard Duke of Gloucester received from EdIV in his second reign. What does this show about Edward's weakness?
- Highly advantageous marriage with Anne Neville (large power base in the north).
- Granted most of Warwick's northern estates (by Act of Parliament.
- Granted special palatinate in Cumberland - gave him the power to raise troops without king's authority.
- This led to the creation of a supernoble. Edward IV was perhaps too over-confident and too trusting of Richard.
Why did the great increase in Gloucester's power lead to Edward not being able to pass on his throne to his son?
- This great increase in power and receiving of patronage could be seen to have fueled his greed which might explain why he usurped the throne.
- The fact that he was a supernoble allowed him to take the throne.
How was Gloucester effective in governing regional areas? (especially where?)
- Dealt with frequent problems and uprisings in the north
- Acted as a buffer between Percies and Stanleys - especially kept a close eye on Stanleys, who were known to be "trimmers". They could be a potential threat if they joined forces, as both had Lancastrian connections.
- Successful, because Stanleys or Percies did nothing to undermine regime throughout second reign.
Give one example of patronage/reward Lord Hastings received and when.
- 1474 - given estates confiscated from Clarence.
- (btw, he had a quarrel with Earl Rivers)
Why was Herbert disgruntled and when?
- Because he was forced to give away nearly all of his Welsh estates granted to his father by EdIV, to Prince Edward. IN compensation, only received 13 manors.
Explain why Edward's choice for appointing Anthony Woodville as the carer for Prince Edward had negative consequences.
- It was a mistake by Edward, because it made nobles (like Gloucester, Herbert, Hastings, Buckingham) more concerned that the Woodvilles would gain continued favour from the future king.
- They highly resented the elevation of the Woodvilles and this was a major cause in the division of the Yorkist nobility, which eventually led to the nobility splitting upon Edward's death.
Examples of who (other than Gloucester) resented the rise of the Woodvilles in the second reign? 3 people.
- Herbert - 1479 was forced to give up earldom of Pembroke to Woodvilles
- Henry, Duke of Buckingham - was forced to marry a Woodville and still found himself excluded of power and influence at court.
- Hastings - on bad terms with the Woodvilles. Queen probably resented his influence over king. Also quarreled with Marquis of Dorset and other Woodvilles.
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Why did introducing the Chamber increase Edward's income from crown lands?
The Exchequer was an old-fashioned system which was cumbersome, whereas the Chamber was a more modern method of accounting that maximised revenue for the king. It also allowed for personal supervision by king as it was part of the royal household.
Why can we assume that the Chamber was effective?
Because both Richard III and Henry VII later reinstated its use.
How much did revenue from customs duties increase in EdIV's second reign?
- 40% increase in revenue since start of his reign.
- 1471 - 25,000 pounds
- later - 35,000 pounds
What did Edward do to increase revenue from customs duties?
- 1473 & 1474 (actually in 1466 too) - appointed special commissioners to investigate collection of customs duties at main ports and to report abuses.
- Trade treaties with Germany, France and Burgundy.
- Tackled problem of pirates interfering with revenues collected from customs duties.
What trade treaties did Edward make to increase his revenue from customs duties? and explain why it did.
- Ultrecht Treaty with Hanseatic League in Germany (1474)
- France (1475 - Treaty of Picquigny)
- Burgundy (1478)
- Increased the actual volume of trade. Also eased restrictions and encouraged flourishing of both the cloth and wine trades.
How much did Edward receive from the French pension secured in which treaty when?
- Treaty of Picquigny, 1475
- Received 15,000 pounds and a further 10,000 annual pension for 7 years to prevent EdIV from returning to France.
How much taxes did Edward rase (mainly for attack of France in 1475)?
177,000 pounds in 2nd reign.
What source of ordinary income did Edward attempt to exploit and increase, but was not successful?
What was perhaps the biggest success for Edward in his royal finance during his second reign?
- Under Edward IV, the crown became solvent for the first time in 200 years.
- Especially impressive given that his predecessor Henry VI, had used the royal finances carelessly by giving away excessive patronage. Edward managed to pay of 30,000 pounds of debt England was in.
Give some examples of how Edward managed royal finance in his first reign.
- 1466 - EdIV was appointing special commissioners to investigate collection of customs duties (like he did later in 1473 & 4)
- Early expedients - "gratuitous subsidy" of 1464 from clergy [Check what this is! with teacher!]
- Edward managed to raise loans surprisingly easily from the Italian banking community and the London merchants. We can infer from this that they had confidence in Edward's financial skills.
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What benefits did the Treaty of Picquigny bring to Edward IV?
- French pension totaling to 85,000 pounds. (Finance)
- Removal of trade restrictions. (Finance)
- Betrothal of Edward's daughter to the Dauphin (although never happened, it raised prestige of Yorkist government)
- Edward managed to intimidate France, his old enemy (Prestige) - showed that England could be credible military power. Also secured safety for Edward's regime.
With what countries did Edward renew his treaties with in his second reign?
- Burgundy and Brittany
- (also temporary truce with Scotland in 1473 through marriage alliance)
When did Edward launch a full-scale attack on Scotland, instead of aiding the Burgundians against France?
What successes did Edward's attack on Scotland bring?
- Managed to capture James III of Scotland - humiliated James.
- Acquired Berwick upon Tweed
However, what treaty was a significant blow to Edward? When, and why?
- 1482, the Treaty of Arras - between France and Burgundy.
- As Edward was preoccupied with launching a full-scale attack on Scotland, he failed to aid Burgundy against France. This meant a loss of England's traditional ally to the enemy, the French.
What criticisms have Edward received from historians relating to the signing of the Treaty of Arras in 1482?
- Edward didn't make the most of the Franco-Burgundian rivalry.
- He was once again, out-maneuvered by Louis XI.
- Once again, maybe he was over-trusting of Burgundy - once again, his naivety shows here. (Indeed, Burgundy in the past showed some signs of being unreliable, such as in 1475 when they failed to provide adequate support for Edward IV).
What negative consequences did Edward's full-scale attack on Scotland have?
- Scottish invasion was expensive, and caused riots to occur in southern England.
- Prevented Edward from aiding Burgundy and thus led to Treaty of Arras (1482).
Briefly list the evidence you will talk about when discussing Edward's success in foreign policy in his second reign.
- Treaty of Picquigny - financial and prestigious benefits
- Renewed treaties with Burgundy (1474) and Brittany (1472), and temporary truce with Burgundy and Brittany (1473)
- 1480 - attack on Scotland - capture James III and acquire Berwick.
Briefly list evidence for failure of Edward's foreign policy in second reign.
- Treaty of Arras (1482) - didn't make most of Franco-Burgundian rivalry, over-trusting, out-maneuvered by Louis XI again.
- Scottish invasion was expensive, and caused riots to occur in southern England.
Outline the main evidence for Edward's first reign foreign policy?
- Edward allied with Burgundy instead of France (1467 & 8)
- Temporary truces with France and Scotland (1463) - but failed to cement it with marriage alliance.
How was Edward's alliance with Burgundy a failure? (why also partial success?)
- Led to Louis XI supporting MofA & Warwick to invade & depose EdIV. (1469-70) - once again, outmaneuvered by LouisXI.
- Also had domestic impact - Warwick alienated because he wanted French alliance.
- However, this brought some successes, such as improved trade (as Burgundy was main cloth market), improved popularity from merchants and Londerners (proved to be quite important when marching into London), also did not let himself controlled by Warwick.
What was the traditional alliance between France and Scotland called?
the Auld Alliance
Government, law and order. Edward ______ more directly and more _____ in _____ politics than his ________ had done.
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Describe/give evidence for Edward's policy on retaining.
- Legislation of 1461 and 1468 - retaining technically illegal but not enforced. (also lenient on relatives).
- Some historians see it as failure that EdIV did not do more to control problem of "maintenance" interfering with judicial system.
Describe/give evidence for Edward's policy on justice, especially emphasised on tackling treason.
- 1467 - new officer appointed to deal with crimes of lese-majeste (treason, threatening king).
- "Constable's court" - had power to execute traitors on battlefield.
- Judicial progresses around kingdom - more personal involvement.
- "Oyer and terminer" commissions - special enquiries dealing with breakdown of law and order.
- JP's and sheriffs often connected with royal family.