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  1. What are Alkaline Earth Metals?
    Properties and Names
    • Group of chemical elements
    • Shiny, silvery-white
    • Somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure
    • All the discovered alkaline earth metals occur in nature

    • beryllium (Be)
    • magnesium (Mg)
    • calcium (Ca)
    • Strontium (Sr)
    • Barium (Ba)
    • Radium (Ra)
  2. What are Transition Metals?
    • Located in "d-block" of the periodic table (groups 3 to 12 on the periodic table)
    • Most transition form more than one oxidation state
  3. What are Alkali Metals?
    Properties & names
    • Group of chemical elements
    • Shiny, soft, silvery
    • Highly reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure
    • Readily lose their outermost electron to form cations with charge
    • They can all be cut easily with a knife due to their softness
    • Tarnishes rapidly in air due to oxidation
    • Lies in the s-block of the periodic table

    • lithium (Li)
    • sodium (Na)
    • potassium (K)
    • rubidium (Rb)
    • caesium (Cs)
    • francium (Fr)
  4. _________ bonds consist of pairs of electrons shared by two atoms, and bind the atoms in a fixed orientation
  5. a positively charged ion
  6. negatively charged ion
  7. A(n) ______ bond is formed between a metal and a non-metal
  8. A ______ bond is formed between two non-metals that have similar electronegativities
  9. what is a Hydrocarbon?
    Name some examples
    • An organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen & carbon.
    • Majority found in crude oil where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen
    • When bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless
    • chains
  10. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are ___________
  11. Saturated hydrocarbons are also called __________
  12. Saturated Hydrocarbons are...
    • Simplest of the hydrocarbon species
    • Composed entirely of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen
    • General formula for is CnH2n+2
    • Are the basis of petroleum fuels
  13. In organic chemistry, a saturated compound is
    • Hydrocarbon with only single bonds
    • Carbon multiple bonds (double or triple bonds) DO NOT exist
    • Alkanes are an example of saturated compounds
  14. In organic chemistry, an unsaturated compound is
    Hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms
  15. Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing double bonds are called ______ with a general formula of _______
    • Alkenes
    • CnH2n
  16. Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing triple bonds are called ______ with a general formula of _______
    • Alkynes
    • CnH2n-2
  17. Eletronegativity is...
    • The attraction of a kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
    • More electronegative the atom, the more strongly it pulls shared electrons toward itself
    • A tug of war for electrons
  18. When a covalent bond between two atoms are equally electronegative, the bond is called a ______
    Nonpolar Covalent Bond

    Examples: H2, O2
  19. When electrons are not shared equally in a compound the bond is called a _________
    Polar Covalent Bond

    Note: Oxygen is one of the most electronegative elements. It attracts shared electrons more strongly than Hydrogen
  20. Compounds formed by the attraction of postive and negative charged cation / anion are called _________ or ________
    • Ionic Compounds
    • Salts
  21. A Hydrogen bond is
    when hydrogen atoms covlantly bond to one electronegative atom becomes attracted to another electronegative atom

    In living cells, partners are usually O or N
  22. van der Waals Interactions
    • Electrons are not always symmetrically distributed in a molecule
    • Can accumulate by chance in one part of molecule
    • Results in ever changing regions of postive & negative charge that enable atoms & molecules to stock together

    Examples: gecko lizard can walk up a wall
  23. The making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter is called a __________
    Chemical Reaction
  24. Cohesion vs Adhesion
    • Cohesion is the attraction of the same type of molecules / particles

    • Adhension is the attraction of between unlike substances

    • Example: Trees
    • Transport of water & dissolved nutrients in against gravity
    • Water evaporates from leaves
    • Hydrogen bonds cause rug on molecules below
    • Upward pull up trunk
  25. Surface Tension is
    • How difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
    • Water is great surface tension due to hydrogen bonds

    • Examples:
    • Meniscus of water in class
    • Animals that can stand & walk on water
  26. Heat vs Temperature
    • Heat is...
    • A form of energy
    • The total kinetic energy of the molecules of a given body of matter
    • Depends in part on matter's volume

    • Temperature is...
    • AVERAGE kinetic energy of the molecules REGARDLESS of volume

    • Example: Pot of Coffee vs Swimming Pool
    • Pot of coffee has higher temperature
    • Swimming pool contains more heat due to volume
  27. The Specific Heat of a substance is
    The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of that substance to changes its temperature 1 degree Celsius
  28. In water...
    Heat is _______ in order to break the hydrogen bonds
    Heat is _______ when hydrogen bonds form
    • Absorbed
    • Released
  29. A solution is
    A liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixtre of two or more substances
  30. In a solution, the dissolving agent is the _______ while the substance that is being dissolved is the ________
    • Solvent
    • Solute
  31. A solution where water is the solvent is called _________
    aqueous solution
  32. Hydration Shell is
    Sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
  33. A stable suspension of fine particles called a
  34. Avogadro's Number is
    • 6.02 x 1023
    • Unit symbol is mole (mol)
  35. Molarity is
    • The number of moles of solute per liter of solution
    • Unit of concentration used for aqueous solutions
  36. Buffers are...
    • Substances that minimize changes in concentrations of H+ & OH- in a solution
    • Allow for relatively constant pH

    • Example: Carbonic Acid (H2CO3)
    • H2CO3 <---> HCO3- + H+

    <---> indicates response to rise / drop in pH
  37. Define an Isomer
    Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formula

    • Compound that has the same number of elements but DIFFERENT structures
    • Hence it can have different properties

    • Three Types of Isomers
    • 1. Structural
    • 2. Geometric
    • 3. Enantiomers
  38. Structural Isomer is
    Type of isomer where the covalent arrangement of the atoms differ

    Example: C5H12


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    2-methyl butane

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  39. Geometric Isomers are
    Compounds with the same number and types of atoms but different spatial arrangements of the atoms

    Example: Pt(NH3)2Cl2

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  40. Enantiomers are
    • Type of stereoisomers
    • Isomers are mirror images of each other
    • Non-superposable (not identical)

    Think: One's left and right hands are the same except for opposite orientation
  41. A Functional Group is...
    Groups of atoms or bonds within moleculesthat are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
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