A & P

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A & P
2012-04-19 16:04:57
Chemistry Review

Chemistry review of chapter 2
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  1. The science of the structure and interactions of matter
  2. Amount of matter in any living organism or nonliving thing.
  3. Anything that occupies space and has mass; made of elements
  4. The smallest particle of an element that can exist, they are neutral. Made of subatomic particles proton,s neutrons, electrons.
  5. Bear a postive electricle charge
    Proton (+)
  6. Electrically neutral and equal to the nucleus
  7. Bear a negative electrical charge, much lighter than protons, 1/1836th the size of a proton. Move around the nucleus and create energy shells
    Electrons (-)
  8. Considered to have no mass, the outer shell electrons determine chemical properties of atom. What is the shell.
    Valence Shell
  9. Can't be broken down any further by normal chemical means. equally balanced neither positive or negative. 26 in the juman body
  10. The simplest element 1 proton and 1 electron an no neutrons
    Hydrogen (H)
  11. Oxygen (O)
    Carbon (C)
    Hydrogen (H)
    Nitrogen (N)
    Major Elements in the body
  12. Calcium (Ca)
    Phosphorus (P)
    Potassium (K)
    Sulfur (S)
    Sodium (Na)
    Chlorine (Cl)
    Magnesium (Mg)
    Lesser elements in the body
  13. Calcium (Ca)
    The most abundant lesser element in the body.
  14. Magnesium (Mg)
    The lesser of the lesser elements of the body
  15. An atom that has either given up or gained electrons
  16. Negatively charged ion, it has gained an electron/ negative charge
    Anion (-) because it has gained an electron
  17. Positively charged ion, it has lost and electron/negatively charge
    Cation (+) because it has lost an electron
  18. 2 or more atoms share electron and may be the same element
  19. 2 or more different elements, can be molecules or ions
    HCl (compound, ionic compound, acid)
    NaCl (compound, ionic compound, salt)
  20. Atoms gain or lose 1 or more electrons, creates an cation or anion. It dissociate into acids, bases, or salts when dissolved in water
    Ionic bond
  21. Share 1 or more pairs of electrons
    Usually single double and triple
  22. Slight negative and slight positive ends
    Water slight positive H is attracted to slight positive
    Polar covalent bond
  23. Polar covalent bonds that connect molecules containing H to other molecules. Most common place is where H2O molecules are held together. It also Holds DNA strands together
    Hydrogen Bonds
  24. Atoms that share the electrons equally, always exist between 2 identical atoms
    Nonpolar covalent bonds
  25. Carbon dioxide
    CO2 (molecule, compound)
  26. Bicarbonate ion
    HCO3- (ion, anion, molecule, ionic compound)
  27. Carbonic Acid
    H2CO3 (ionic compound, acid)
  28. Sodium Chloride
    NaCl (ionic compound, salt)
  29. Hydrogen Ion
  30. Oxygen molecule
  31. Breaks down into H+ and something else
    • Acid
    • ex HCl
  32. Breaks down into OH- ion (hydroxide) and something else
    Base (alkaline)
  33. Breaks down into substances that are not H+ or OH-
  34. Breaks down when dissolved in water