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The Torrijos-Carter Treaties
(sometimes referred to in the singular as the Torrijos-Carter Treaty) are two treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D.C., on September 7, 1977, which abrogated the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty of 1903. The treaties guaranteed that Panama would gain control of the Panama Canal after 1999, ending the control of the canal that the U.S. had exercised since 1903. The treaties are named after the two signatories, U.S. President Jimmy Carter and the Commander of Panama's National Guard, General Omar Torrijos. Although Torrijos was not democratically elected as he had seized power in a coup in 1968, it is generally considered that he had widespread support in Panama to justify his signing of the treaties.
Treaties both signed on
Sept 7. Regan lambasted the treaty. Gave power back to panama over canal. Passed with 2/3 majority
- This first treaty is officially titled The Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal
- and is commonly known as the Neutrality Treaty. Under this treaty, the U.S. retained the permanent right to defend the canal from any threat that might interfere with its continued neutral service to ships of all nations. The second treaty is titled The Panama Canal Treaty, and provided that as from 12:00 on December 31, 1999, Panama would assume full control of canal operations and become primarily responsible for its defense.
Problems in the
Went back to the 1967 war.
In the June 1967 6 day war
· Israel gained control of the West Bank over the Jordan river which was populated by Palestinians. Also gained control over the Gaza strip, and also all of Jerusalem. After this war ended, UN sent troops to the Sinai peninsula to separate the Israelis and Egyptians who were still at war. This slow things down and led to the Camp David Accords
Oct 1973 the Egyptians asked UN
to withdraw their troops because they were planning an attack with the Syrians
Oct 6 1973 Egyptians and Syrians started the Yom Kippur war.
· Egypt from the west and at the same time Syrians invaded from the North. Soviet union under Breschnev was aligned with Egypt. Soviets gave some support and led to a high level of alert suggesting the Americans may resort to nuclear weapons to stop the aggression. Many doubted this and thought it was just an act to contain the Watergate Scandal that Nixon was going through.
Kissinger gave enough support to Israelis to be able to hold on,
· but when they started winning against the Syrians and Egyptians, then Kissinger started to decrease support. War ended by end of Oct 1973. Ended in a negotiated truce.
Kissinger engaged in shuttle diplomacy 1973-1975
· US to Egypt, Syria, back and forth trying to form a settlement. By 1975 a truce had been worked out but did not resolve all the issues
Jimmy Carter came in at
What did the Israelis want?
· Wanted Arab states to recognize Israel as an independent state. Egypt, Suadi Arabia, Iraq, Syria did not recognize Israel. Jimmy Carter invited Sadat and Begin to Camp David.
Jimmy Carter invited
- · Anwar Sadat (President of Egypt) and Menachem Begin (Prime minister of Isreal) to
- · Camp David Sept 5 - Sept 17 1978 - was designed to solve Egypt Israeli relations.
What happened at the end of this meeting?
- · Camp David Accords which meant
- · Egyptians would recognize the state of Israel
- · Israel promised to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula.
- · Signed Sept 17 1978 and led to direct Israeli and Egyptian negotiations. March 26 1979 they signed a peace
- treaty that finalized the framework made out at Camp David Isreal would now be recognized and withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula
- · Solved some issues but not any issues with Syria
Camp David did not solve
· Issue in Golan Heights. Syria did not recognize Isreal. Settlements in Gaza and West bank also became an issue.
Jimmy Carter thought he got a concession from Begin as part of David Accords
· that Israelis would recognize right of Palestinians in Gaza to live there and potentially create a homeland for themselves. This did not take place. Israelis began to build settlements in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Many in Israel thought the West Bank was part of Israel and that they could live there
Jimmy Carter experienced huge difficulties in Iran.
· An Islamic revolution Feb 1979 ousted the Shaw of Iran and brought into power a new government leading to a poor relation with US.
Nov 4 1979.
- · Students in Tehran moved to American Ebassy and took Americans hostage. Some were released (13) but 52 were held.
- · This occupation continued throughout the remainder of Jimmy Carters presidency. Hostage crisis from nov. 1979 through the end of Carters presidency helped to undermine Carter and thereby assist in election of Ronald Regan who promised if he was president this would not happen. Underscored the weakness of the US and and weakness of Carter. In actuality US was not powerful enough to keep from having hostages taken in the Middle east
If you want to be a great power you have to be a
· self sufficient agricultural country. You have to have food. If other people want to eat, they have a dependence on food suppliers.
During WWI and WWII US supplied food to Allies
and that gave more power to the Americans.
Farm policy began to impact even more
· 1970's foreign policy. Both intersected with the domestic economy. Economic welfare of Americans at home was related to both farm and foreign policy.
· Americans were more integrated with the rest of the world. The America First bumped into other realities in the 1970's.
The world began to connect more but the world was still very divided
- · by governments. Racial and Ethnic divides were also important. Religion was another way to divide the world. Islamic revolution in Iran was one example. Carter was Christian,
- · Increasingly globalized world and an increasingly fragmented world. Oil is one way these two intersect. If you depend on Arab oil with governments profoundly different from western governments then that can create huge problems as it did by USA.
National security was based simply on military superiority.
· This is a problem because national security is more complex than this. US relied on military for national security. Defense budget would be published but budgets for the CIA would never be revealed
Iran under the shaw was a great military spender.
- · Under the Nixon doctrine announced by Nixon in Guam in June of 1970, Iran was supposed to become a pillar of peace. At this time Americans were withdrawing from Vietnam, British could not sustain their presence in Asia, so western
- powers were pulling back. In this context Nixon and Kissinger looked to other countries to pick up the slack: Israel was one major ally, Iran also became a focal point of power. Thus Americans began to sell equipment to Iran.
OPEC Oil embargo
- · Oct 1973
- · Iran had not joined with the other OPEC members (Iran, Saudi Arabia, etc.) So they continued to sell oil to the Western Nations and more and more revenue poured into Tehran. During this period Iran bought new ships, planes. the very best of
- American technology.
- · Created inflation of oil prices
Iran was becoming more dependent on foreign (US included) sources of
· food. Iran sold oil, brought revenue, shaw used that money to buy military technology from the US, and also used money to import food from the US. Money was going back and forth.