Chapter 14

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Author:
jskunz
ID:
148701
Filename:
Chapter 14
Updated:
2012-04-19 18:58:21
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Neurology
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Description:
Medical terminology
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  1. neurons
    structures which make up nervous system
  2. synapse
    the point at which one neuron meets another
  3. synaptic cleft
    the gap between two neurons
  4. myelin
    an insulating substance that helps neurons conduct their electrical impulses faster
  5. cerebell/o
    • cerebellum
    • Second largest part of brain; coordinates body movement and maintains balance
  6. cerebr/o
    • cerebrum
    • The largest part of brain; receives sensory information and sends motor commands; also responsible for memory, problem solving and language.
    • Divided into frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes
  7. encephal/o
    • brain
    • the brain is one of the largest organs in body; coordinates most body activities; four sections of brain are cerebrum, cerebellum, thalamus, and brain stem.
  8. medull/o
    • medulla oblongata
    • part of the brain stem; connects rest of brain to spinal cord; contains control centers for respiration, heart rate, temp and blood pressure
  9. mening/o
    • meninges
    • form a 3-layer protective sac around brain and spinal cord; outer layer is dura mater, middle layer is arachnoid layer, inner layer is pia mater
  10. myel/o
    • spinal cord
    • a column of nervous tissue providing path for messages traveling to and from brain.
  11. neur/o
    • nerve
    • a cordlike bundle of neurons carrying messages between CNS and muscles and organs of body; sensory nerves carry information to CNS; motor nerves carry messages from CNS to muscles and organs
  12. pont/o
    pons
  13. thalam/o
    • thalamus
    • is the part of the brain that relays incoming sensory info to correct part of cerebrum
  14. -cephal/o
    head
  15. electr/o
    electricity
  16. hemat/o
    blood
  17. hydr/o
    water
  18. lumb/o
    low back
  19. my/o
    muscle
  20. scler/o
    hardening
  21. spin/o
    spine
  22. vascul/o
    blood vessels
  23. who is awesome??
    I am awesome!!
  24. -ary
    pertaining to
  25. -asthenia
    weakness
  26. -cele
    • hernia, protrusion
    • This suffix refers to a birth defect in which portion of nervous system protrudes through opening in vertebral column
  27. -ectomy
    surgical removal
  28. -esthesia
    feeling, sensation
  29. -malacia
    softening
  30. -phasia
    speech
  31. -pathy
    disease
  32. -plegia
    paralysis
  33. -rrhaphy
    suture
  34. -trophic
    development
  35. hemi-
    half
  36. quadri-
    four
  37. sub-
    under
  38. Alzheimer disease
    chronic brain condition involving progressive disorientation, speech and gait disturbances, and loss of memory
  39. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    • ALS
    • disease with muscular weakness and atrophy due to degeneration of motor neurons of spinal cord; commonly called Lou Gehrig disease
  40. anticonvulsant
    medication to reduce excitability of neurons and to prevent uncontrolled neuron activity associated with seizures
  41. brain tumor
    intracranial mass, either benign or malignant; benign tumor of brain can still be fatal because it will grow and cause pressure on normal brain tissue
  42. cerebral contusion
    bruising of brain from impact
  43. cerebral palsy
    • (CP)
    • nonprogressive brain damage resulting from defect in fetal development or trauma or oxygen deprivation at time of birth
  44. cerebrospinal fluid analysis
    laboratory examination of clear, watery, colorless fruid from within brain and spinal cord; detects infections or bleeding of brain
  45. cerebrovascular accident
    • (CVA)
    • development of brain infarct due to loss in blood supply to brain; can be caused by ruptured blood vessel, floating clot, stationary clot, or compression; extent of damage depends on size and location of infarct and can include dysphasia and hemiplegia; commonly called stroke
  46. cerebral hemorrhage
    cerebral artery ruptures and bleeds into brain tissue
  47. cerebral embolism
    embolus from another area lodges in cerebral artery and blocks blood flow
  48. cerebral thrombosis
    blood clot forms in cerebral artery and blocks blood flow
  49. compression
    pressure from tumor squeezes adjacent blood vessel and blocks blood flow
  50. coma
    profound unconsciousness or stupor resulting from illness or injury
  51. concussion
    injury to brain when brain is shaken inside skull because of impact
  52. dementia
    progressive impairment of intellectual function that interferes with performing activities of daily living
  53. epilepsy
    recurrent disorder of brain; seizures and loss of consciousness occur as result of uncontrolled neuron electrical activity
  54. hydrocephalus
    buildup of cerebrospinal fluid within brain, cause head to be enlarged; treated by creating shunt from brain to abdomen to drain excess fluid
  55. lumbar puncture
    puncture with needle into lumbar vertebral area (usually space between fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae) to withdraw fluid for examination or for injection of medication; also called spinal puncture or spinal tap
  56. migraine
    specific type of headache characterized by severe head pain, sensitivity to light, dizziness, and nausea
  57. multiple sclerosis
    • (MS)
    • inflammatory autoimmune disease of central nervous system; immune system damages myelin around neurons and results in extreme weakness and numbness
  58. paralysis
    temporary or permanent loss of muscle function and movement
  59. Parkinsons disease
    chronic disorder of the nervous system with fine tremors, muscular weakness, regidity, and shuffling gait
  60. seizure
    sudden, uncontrollable onset of symptoms
  61. shingles
    eruption of painful blisters on the body along nerve path; thought to be caused by a herpes zoster virus infection of nerve root
  62. spina bifida
    congenital defect in walls of spinal canal in which two sides of vertebra do not meet or close
  63. spinal cord injury
    • (SCI)
    • damage to spinal cord as result of trauma; spinal cord can be bruised or completely severed
  64. subdural hemotoma
    mass of blood forming underneath dura mater when meninges are town by trauma; can exert fatal pressure on brain if hematoma is not drained by surgery
  65. syncope
    fainting
  66. transient ischemic attack
    • (TIA)
    • temporary reduction of blood supply to brain; causes symptoms such as syncope, numbness, and hemiplegia, can eventually lead to cerebrovascular accident
  67. ANS
    autonomic nervous system
  68. CNS
    central nervous system
  69. CSF
    cerebrospinal fluid
  70. EEG
    electroencephalogram
  71. MS
    multiple sclerosis
  72. PET
    positron emission tomograpy
  73. PNS
    peripheral nervous system
  74. TIA
    transient ischemic attack

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