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2012-05-01 21:13:58
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Facts for test #6
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  1. Ecology:
    The study of the interaction between organisms and their environment
  2. Organismal ecology:
    study of how an organisms structure, physiology, and behavior meet environmental changes
  3. Population:
    Group of individuals of the same species living in a defined area at the same time
  4. Population ecology:
    focuses on factors effecting how many individuals of a species live in an area
  5. Community:
    populations of a different species living in a defined area at the same tim
  6. Community ecology:
    studies all of the interacting species in a community
  7. Ecosystem:
    the community of organisms in an area and the abiotic factors with which they interact
  8. Ecosystem ecology:
    emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling in an ecosystem
  9. Landscape:
    a mosaic of interconnected ecosystems
  10. Landscape ecology:
    focuses on the exchange of energy resources and organisms across multiple ecosystems
  11. Biosphere:
    the global ecosystem
  12. Global ecology:
    examines the influence of energy and materials organism across the biosphere
  13. Biotic factors:
    living factors (parasitism, predation, herbivory, competition, pollination)
  14. Abiotic factors:
    Non-living factors (temp, water, sunlight ,wind, rock/soils)
  15. Dispersal:
    movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or from their area of origin
  16. Climate:
    long-term prevailing weather conditions in a given area
  17. Macroclimate:
    (big)climate patterns on the global, regional and local level
  18. Microclimate:
    (small) climate patterns on a very small scale
  19. Biome:
    major ecological zone that occupy broad geographic regions or land or water
  20. List the five primary biotic factors that affect species distribution.
    • Organismal
    • Population
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
    • Landscape
    • Global
  21. Briefly explain how each of the following abiotic factors affects species distribution:
    metabolically (hibernation in cold weather) and behavioral adaptations ( ectothermic lizard cannot survive in same environment as endothermic polar bear)
  22. Briefly explain how each of the following abiotic factors affects species distribution:
    Aquatic animals require water in their environment
  23. Briefly explain how each of the following abiotic factors affects species distribution:salinity
    fresh water vs. salt water aquatic animals cannot disperse into each others habitats
  24. Briefly explain how each of the following abiotic factors affects species distribution: sunlight
    Low light adapted plants live in shade vs. high exposure plants that survive in direct sunlight
  25. Briefly explain how each of the following abiotic factors affects species distribution:
    seed dispersal which intern effect herbivores. Plants in high winds must be able to withstand pummeling
  26. Briefly explain how each of the following abiotic factors affects species distribution:rocks and soil
    Plants must be able to penetrate soil type and live in the pH level and mineral composition of substrate
  27. What are the four major components of climate?
    • Temperature
    • Precipitation
    • Sunlight
    • wind
  28. List the four factors that are largely responsible for determining global climate patterns.
    • Solar energy/sunlight intensity
    • Planets movement in space
    • Global air circulation patterns
    • Global precipitation patterns
  29. How does proximity to large bodies of water affect local climate patterns?
    Water holds heat in warm periods due to hydrogen bonds. When air passes over the water it is heated and dispersed onto land
  30. How does the presence of a mountain range affect local climate patterns?
    The amount of sunlight reaching an area changes the temperature along with elevation. Winds forced up the mountain is cooled causing rain on one side and a rain shadow on the other side
  31. What two factors characterize the different terrestrial biomes?
    Temperature and rainfall
  32. Density (as related to populations):
    number of individuals per unit area or volume
  33. Dispersion (as related to populations):
    pattern of the spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population
  34. Demography:
    study of the vital statistics of a population and how they change over time
  35. Life table:
    age-specific summary of the survival pattern of a population
  36. Survivorship curve:
    graphic representation of the data in a life table
  37. Life history (of an organism):
    traits of a organisms that effect reproduction and survival
  38. Carrying capacity:
    maximum population size the environment can sustain
  39. Density-dependent selection: (K)
    (K) selects for life history traits that are sensitive to population density
  40. Density-independent selection:
    ( r ) selects for life history traits that maximize reproduction
  41. Population dynamics:
    the complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors that cause variation in population size
  42. Age structure:
    the average age of individuals in a population
  43. Zero population growth:
    birth + immigration = death + emigration ( those coming into population same as those going out)
  44. Demographic transition:
    population goes from high birth and death rate to low birth and death rate
  45. Ecological footprint concept:
    the sum of land and water needed to sustain people of a city or nation
  46. Population:
    A group of individuals of the same species living in the same defined areas @ the same time
  47. What are the four characteristics of populations that are the focus of study in population ecology?
    • Density
    • Dispersion
    • Age structure
    • Population size
  48. Describe each of the following population dispersion patterns and cite the primary influence(s) resulting in that pattern:
    • clumped: organisms arranged in patches
    • uniform: organisms evenly distributed
    • random: organisms position is independent of other organisms
  49. Describe the i type of survivorship curve in terms of mortality rates, number of offspring, level of parental care of offspring, predictability of the environment, and natural selection (favoring number of offspring or favoring parental care of offspring)
    i= Low mortality early in life, few offspring w/good parental care, predictable environment, favoring parental care.
  50. Describe the ii types of survivorship curve in terms of mortality rates, number of offspring, level of parental care of offspring, predictability of the environment, and natural selection (favoring number of offspring or favoring parental care of offspring)
    ii=Constant mortality, blend of type 1 and 2
  51. Describe the iii type of survivorship curves in terms of mortality rates, number of offspring, level of parental care of offspring, predictability of the environment, and natural selection (favoring number of offspring or favoring parental care of offspring)
    iii= High mortality early in life, lots of offspring w/little parental care, unpredictable environment, favoring quantity of offspring.
  52. Describe the following types of reproductive strategies; the type of environment under which that type of reproduction would be most advantageous; and give an example
    a. semelparity:
    b. iteroparity:
    • a. semelparity: lots of offspring once, moist environment, octopus
    • b. iteroparity: repeated reproduction, more stable environment, rabbits
  53. Describe the Exponential Growth Model. What type(s) of populations and under what environmental conditions would exponential growth occur? What is the shape of the curve in the exponential growth model?
    Rebounding populations introduced into a new environment. Shape is J-curve
  54. Describe the Logistic Growth Model. What type(s) of populations and under what environmental conditions would logistic growth occur? What is the shape of the curve in the logistic growth model?
    Population growth rate decreases with increasing amount of individuals, shape is S-curve (most common)
  55. Which growth model does the human population most closely resemble?
  56. What are the three main factors that influence density-independent selection?
    Weather, climate, natural disasters
  57. Give three reasons / examples of why populations might fluctuate in size over time
    • 1.Disease
    • 2.Natural disasters
    • 3.Introduction into a new environment
  58. How does age structure affect present and future population growth?
    Reproduction favors organisms between a certain age range. If population has larger amount of those within this range it will effect population growth
  59. What factors are likely to limit human population growth?
    Food, space, nonrenewable resources, buildup wastes
  60. Community (Biological):
    all of the populations of various species living in the same area at the same time
  61. Ecological niche:
    the total biotic and abiotic resources used by a species
  62. Resource partitioning:
    difference of niches enabling similar species to coexist in a community
  63. Fundamental niche:
    the niche potentially occupied by a species
  64. Realized niche:
    the portion of a niche the species actually occupies
  65. Character displacement:
    tendency of characteristics to be more different in 2 species occupying same area then 2 species occupying different areas
  66. Batesian mimicry:
    a harmless organism resembles a harmful one bettering its chances for survival
  67. Mullerian mimicry:
    two harmful species that resemble each other
  68. Symbiosis:
    close relationship between organisms of different species
  69. Endoparasite:
    an internal parasite
  70. Ectoparasite:
    an external parasite
  71. Obligate mutualism:
    mutualistic to the point that one species cannot live w/out each other
  72. Facultative mutualism:
    mutualistic but able to live without each other
  73. Species richness:
    total # of different species in the community
  74. Relative abundance:
    the proportion each species represents of the total individuals in the community
  75. Trophic structure:
    the feeding relationships between organisms in a community
  76. Food chain:
    link trophic levels from producers to top carnivores
  77. Food web:
    a branching food chain with complex trophic interactions
  78. Detritivore (decomposer):
    consume dead material left by all trophic levels
  79. Dominant species:
    species that are most abundant or have highest biomass
  80. Biomass:
    total mass of all individuals in a population
  81. Invasive species:
    normally introduced to new environment by humans, often lack predators or disease
  82. Keystone species:
    have a strong control on a community by their ecological role or niches
  83. Foundation species:
    cause physical changes in the environment that affect community structure
  84. Ecological succession:
    the sequence of community and ecosystem changes after a disturbance
  85. Evapotranspiration:
    when water is transferred from land to atmosphere by evaporation from soil & etc. by transpiration from plants
  86. Explain the Competitive Exclusion Principle.
    Two species competing for the same limiting recourses cannot coexist in the same place
  87. List five adaptations that help a predator to be more successful at capturing prey.
    • 1.Acute senses
    • 2.Ability to catch & subdue prey
    • 3.Speed & agility
    • 4.Camouflage
    • 5.mimicry
  88. List six adaptations that help prey escape predators.
    • 1.Behavioral defenses
    • 2.Distraction displays
    • 3.Camouflage
    • 4.Mechanical defenses
    • 5.Chemical defenses
    • 6.Batesian and mullerian mimicr
  89. Give the two main categories of plant defenses against herbivores.

    2.Physical defenses (thorns etc.)
  90. Cite three evolutionary responses of herbivores to plant defenses.
    • 1.Keen sense of small
    • 2.Chemical sensors
    • 3.Metabolic detoxification
  91. What are the two fundamental features of community structure?
    • 1.Species diversity
    • 2.Trophic structure
  92. What are the two components of species diversity?
    • 1.Species richness
    • 2.Relative abundance
  93. What is the Energetic Hypothesis, as related to food chains?
    The length of the food chain is limited by inefficient energy transfer
  94. Describe the Bottom-up Model of community organization.
    Presence or absence of minerals nutrients determines community structure
  95. Describe the Top-down Model of community organization.
    Predators control herbivores, which controls primary producers
  96. Describe the original / traditional view of the effects of disturbance on community structure.
    Communities are in a state of equilibrium
  97. Describe the “non-equilibrium model” of the effects of disturbance on community structure.
    Communities are constantly changing after being affected by disturbance
  98. Describe the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis.
    Moderate levels of disturbance allow for greater diversity then either high or low levels of disturbance
  99. Describe the differences between primary and secondary ecological succession.
    Primary succession occurs where no soil exists when succession begins vs. secondary succession begin in area where soil remains after a disturbance
  100. How does latitude affect species diversity in a community?
    Climate changes, which depend on latitudinal coordinates
  101. Ecosystem:
    all the organisms living in a community as well as the abiotic facts with which they interact
  102. First Law of Thermodynamics:
    energy cannot be created or destroyed
  103. Second Law of Thermodynamics:
    every exchange of energy increases the entropy of the universe
  104. Law of Conservation of Mass:
    matter cannot be created or destroyed
  105. Primary producer:
    must be a photoautotroph or chemoautotroph ( makes own food)
  106. Primary consumer:
    are herbivores
  107. Secondary consumer:
    are carnivores
  108. Primary production (of an ecosystem):
    amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs during a given period
  109. Gross primary production:
    all of the light energy converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis
  110. Net primary production:
    GPP minus energy used by producers for respiration ( only net is available to consumers)
  111. Secondary production (of an ecosystem):
    amount of chemical energy in a consumers food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given period of time
  112. Production efficiency:
    the fraction of energy stored in food that is not used for respiration
  113. Trophic efficiency:
    the % of production transferred from one trophic level to the next
  114. Biogeochemical cycle:
    Nutrient cycles involving both biotic and abiotic components
  115. Restoration ecology:
    applies ecological principles in an attempt to return degraded ecosystems to their natural state
  116. What are the two main processes that drive ecosystem dynamics?
    (1)Energy flow (2) chemical cycling
  117. Describe energy flow in an ecosystem.
    Flows in one direction, enters as sunlight, absorbed by producers, converted to chemical energy- passed through food chain. Some energy is lost via heat and from cellular decomposition and recycled through ecosystem
  118. Describe energy flow through a pyramid of net production.
    Energy is passed from primary producers-primary consumers-secondary consumers-tertiary consumers and at each level 10% of energy is used
  119. Describe the two main strategies of restoration ecology:
    a. bioremediation:
    b. augmentation of ecosystem processes:
    • a. bioremediation: used of bacteria and fungi or plants to detoxify ecosystems(ex. Cleaning up oil spills)
    • b. augmentation of ecosystem processes:
    • Use of organisms to add essential materials to a degraded ecosystem
  120. Conservation biology:
    attempts to preserve life; integrates several fields
  121. Endangered species
    Animals in danger of becoming extinct throughout all or a significant portion of its range
  122. Threatened species:
    animals that are likely to become endangered
  123. Threatened species:
    animals that are likely to become endangered
  124. Biophilia:
    humans sense of connection to nature and other living organisms
  125. Minimum viable population:
    the minimum population size at which a species can survive
  126. Effective population size:
    based on the populations breeding potential
  127. Movement corridor:
    narrow strip of quality habitat connecting otherwise isolated patches
  128. Biodiversity Hot-Spot:
    small area with a large concentration of endemic (native) species an many endangered/threatened species
  129. Nature Reserve:
    biodiversity "island" within a habitat degraded by human activity
  130. Zoned Reserve:
    conservation model in which relatively undisturbed areas and modified areas around them act as buffer zone
  131. Critical load (for a nutrient):
    the amount that plants can absorb without damaging the ecosystem
  132. Eutrophication:
    increase in nutrients ( agricultural runoff) created high algal growth then death. Decomposition causes decrease in oxygen which kills fish etc.
  133. Dead zone (in the ocean):
    eutrophication in ocean
  134. Biological magnification:
    concentrates toxins at higher trophic levels
  135. Describe the four levels of biodiversity:
    • a. genetic diversity: genetic variation within a population and between population b. species diversity: variety of species in an ecosystem, or throughout the biosphere
    • c. ecosystem diversity: variety of habitats, living communities and ecological processes d. global change: alterations in- nutrient cycles, climate, and atmospheric chemistry
  136. Give three examples of how biodiversity is important to humans.
    • 1.Plants used for medicine
    • 2.Provides a balanced diet
    • 3.Some bacteria can be use to create biodegradable plastic
  137. What are the three main threats to biodiversity? Which one is the greatest threat to biodiversity?
    • 1.Habitat destruction
    • 2.Introduced species
    • 3.Overexploitation
    • 4.Global change
    • Greatest is habitat destruction
  138. Describe the Small-Population Approach to species conservation.
    Studies processes that can make small population become extinct
  139. Describe the Extinction Vortex.
    A list of factors that contribute to extinction of a species. These include inbreeding, genetic drift, loss of genetic variability, reduction in individual fitness and population adaptability, lower reproduction, higher mortality= smaller population
  140. Describe the Declining-Population Approach to species conservation.
    Focuses on threatened and endangered population, emphasizes he environmental factors that caused a population to decline
  141. Describe the concept of ‘sustainable development’.
    The attempt to improve the human condition while conserving biodiversity-which help ecologists establish long-term conservation strategies