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2012-04-21 07:55:01

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  1. 1) Which hormone controls release of pituitary gonadotropins?
    The hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing hormone(GnRH), which reaches the anterior pituitary cells via the blood of the hypophyseal portal system. GnRH controls the release of the two anterior pituitary gonadotropins: FSH(follicle stimulating hormone) and LH(luteinizing hormone) both named for their effects on the female gonad.
  2. 2. What sequence is going to determine male or female structures will develop?
    Sex chromosomes are the determing factor. Of the 46 chromosomes in the fertlized egg two (one pair) are sex chromosomes. The other 44 are called autosomes. Two types of sex chromosome exist in humans the large X chromosome and the smaller Y chromosome. Female will have tow XX and male will have an XY.
  3. 3. What's the one thing that makes an egg & sperm similar?
    Number of chromosomes: Normally both contain a haploid chromosome set, i.e. 23 chromosomes, as opposed to normal diploid body cells with 46 chromosomes. Both are developed in a process called meiosis from germ cells.Both are gametes or reproductive cells.
  4. 4. What are the effects of estrogen?
    Increases to 30 times normal before birth,Corpus luteum is source for first 12 weeks untilplacenta takes over, Causes uterine, mammary duct & breast enlargement. Also stimulates in contraction. It also promotes oogenesis, at puberty it stimulates the growth of the reproductive organs and the growth spurt and promotes the appearance of the secondary sex characteristics.
  5. 5. Characteristics of sperm
  6. 6. From what glands do mammary glands originate?
    Mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are really part of the skin or integumentary system
  7. 7. How many cells are produced at the end of spermogenesis & ovogenesis?
    Oogenesis is the creation of the female gamete and spermatogenesis is the creation of the male gamete.Meiosis begins in male once they reach puberty (they do both meiosis I and II) and do it for the rest of their lives non-stop Females begin Meiosis I in the womb and they don't start to do Meiosis II until they reach puberty. Unlike males, females don't form gametes non stop and they stop forming gametes at menopause.The end result for males are four sperm cells For females, they create three small polar bodies and one big daughter cell. The polar bodies give themselves up and give their nutrients to the big cell. So for females, they create only one gamete while males create four.These two cells seem to be almost same with the difference that they are generated in two different types of systems i.e. male and female body. Apart from this simple difference, there are a lot of other differences between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis. Spermatogenesis cells of a human being are made in the testes portion of male body. On the other hand, Oogenesis cells are produced in the ovaries of female where eggs are made. As a result of Spermatogenesis, four spermatids are obtained. These four cells are divided in to two cells each which carry on the process to get mature for developing four mature sperm cells. On the other hand, Oogenesis produces four cells three of which are polar bodies while one is ovum. Only ovum is taken to the process of maturity which allows developing a single egg at the end. The size of Spermatogenesis cells is quite small when compared to the Oogenesis cell of a female. The production of Spermatogenesis continues in the body of a male human when he reaches the age of puberty till he dies. The production of Oogenesis in a female human starts even before a female is born and continues till the time when menstruation is completely ended which usually happens during the age of 45 till 55
  8. 8. Which hormone necessary for ovulation?
  9. 9. Characteristics of spermatogenesis?
  10. 10. Characteristics of Uterine Cycle?
  11. 11. In a male, FSH is not released and LH is released. What is the effect?
  12. 12. Interstitial Cells, produce what?
    Are found lying in the soft connective tissue surrounding the seminiferous tubules also known as Leydig cells, they produce androgens(most importantly testosterone) which they secrete into the surrounding interstitial fluid.
  13. 13. Define broad ligament
  14. 14. Define Myometrium
  15. 15. Which hormone triggers menstration?
  16. 16. What occurs at puberty for both sexes
  17. 17. What happens when dertos muscle contract?
  18. 18. Functions of male accessory glands
    Includes the paired seminal vesicles (gland) and bulbourethal glands and the single prostate. Together these glands produce the bulk of semen. SV contain a yellowish viscous alkaline fluid containing frutose sugar, ascorbic acid, a coagulating enzyme(vesiculase) and prostaglandins, as well as other substances that enhance sperm motility or fertilizing ability. Prostate plays a role in activating sperm and accounts for up to 1/3 of the semen volume. It is a milky slightly acid fluid that comtains citrate,several enzymes, and PSA. BG are pea sized glands that produce a thick clear mucus that lubricates the glans penis when a man becomes sexually excited, the mucus neutalizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra just prior to ejaculation
  19. 19. What happens if rete testis are damaged
  20. 20. What happens if you blocked oxytocin during lactation
  21. 21. What happens to menstrual cycle if severely underweight
  22. 22. What's colostrum
  23. 23. What is the effect of estrogen on adolescent girls?
  24. 24. What difference between primoxial & primary follicle?
  25. 25. Corpus Albakines
  26. 26. Difference between cow and human milk