astrasfinal

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Author:
Astras
ID:
148728
Filename:
astrasfinal
Updated:
2012-04-29 22:40:20
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biology final
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bio final
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  1. what is adaptive (specific) defense system?
    -name the leukocytes involved
    -3rd line of defense attacks particular foreign substances

    -takes longer to react than innate system

    -humoral- B cells

    - cellular- T cells
  2. 2nd line of defense
    • -antimicrobial proteins
    • -inflammation
    • -phagocytes
    • -natural killer cells
    • -fever
  3. name the functions and components of the 1st line of defense
    - skin, mucosae, and thier secretions

    physical barrier to most microorganisms
  4. cell mediated immunity
    T cells provide defense against intracellular antigens
  5. what is the innate ( nonspecific) defense system?
    -name the leukocytes involved
    • System responds quickly and cosists of a first line and second line of defense.
    • WBC'S
  6. humoral immunity
    1st encounter between antigen and lymphocyte

    usually occurs in spleen or lymph node


    if a B cell antigen provokes humoral immune response

    antibodies are produced
  7. which WBC's are involved in humoral immunity?
    B lymphocytes

    mature in red bone marrow
  8. which WBC's are involved in cell mediated immunity?
    T lymphocytes

    mature in thymus
  9. what cells does the HIV virus attack
    helper T cells
  10. antigen
    substances that can provoke an immune response
  11. IGE antibodies
    causes mast cells and basophils to release histamine
  12. IGD antibodies
    functions as a B cell receptor
  13. IGG antibodies
    crosses placenta barrier

    comes from secondary and late primary responses
  14. antibodies
    AKA- immunoglobulins

    secreted by plasma cells

    capable of binding specifically with antigen deteted by B cells
  15. pathogens
  16. natural active immunity
    naturally acquired- response to a viral or bactereial infection
  17. natural passive immunity
    antibodies delivered to the fetus via placenta or breast milk
  18. artificial active immunity
    response to a vaccine
  19. artificial passive immunity
    • injection of serum ( gamma globulin)
    • protection is immediate but body degrades with antibodies
  20. respiratory membrane
    alveolar and capillary walls fused to basement membranes

    - sqaumous epitheleum
  21. larynx
    • -provides patent airway
    • -route for air and food
    • -voice produciton
  22. pulmonary ventilation
    • inspiration- gas flows into the lungs
    • expiration- gas exits the lungs
  23. external respiration
    exchange of o2 and co2
  24. internal respiration
  25. nose ( nasal cavity)
    • -provides airway for respiration
    • -moistens and warms air
    • -filters and cleans
    • -resonating chamber for speech
    • -houses olfactory receptors
  26. ciliated mucous
  27. bronchi
  28. alveoli
    gas exchange occurs here
  29. surfactant
    reduces surface tension
  30. what has the greatest stimulating effect on the respiratory center in the brain
    increase of carbon dioxide
  31. how is oxygen transported in the blood
    bound to hemi part of RBC's
  32. osmosis
    Diffusion of a solvent (usually water molecules) through a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration.
  33. diffusion
    The passive movement of molecules or particles along a concentration gradient, or from regions of higher to regions of lower concentration.
  34. active transport
    When cells must move materials in an opposite direction - against a concentration gradient
  35. filtration
    The movement of water and solutes across the cell membrane due to hydrostatic pressure from the cardiovascular system.
  36. what is used in the lungs for oxygen and CO2 exchange
  37. list the enzymes that aid in carbohydratte digestion and give their source
  38. list the enzymes that aid in protein digestion and give their source
  39. list the enzymes that aid in lipid (fat) digestion and give their source
  40. what are the plicae circulares and villi, where are they found and what are their functions
  41. peristalsis, and how's it used in digestion
  42. mechanical digestion
  43. chemical digestion
  44. what types of digestion take splace in the mouth, stomach, small intestines, and large intestine
  45. organs of the urinary system
  46. glomerulus
  47. glomerular capsule (bowman's capsule)
  48. renal corpuscle
  49. proximal convoluted tubule
  50. loop of Henle
  51. distal convoluted capsule
  52. juxtaglomerular apparatus
  53. peritubual capillaries

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