Lesson 17

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Lesson 17
2012-04-19 22:00:08
astr 205

The Terrestrial Planets Key Terms and Concepts
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  1. comparitive planetology
    the study of planets in relation to one another
  2. mantle
    the layer of dense rock and metal oxides that lies between the molten core and the planet's surface
  3. P waves
    a pressure wave; a type of seismic wave produced in earth by the compression of material
  4. S waves
    a shear wave; a type of seismic wave produced in earth by the lateral motion of material
  5. plastic
    a material with the properties of a solid but capable of flowing under pressure
  6. primeval (primary) atmosphere
    earth's first air
  7. secondary atmosphere
    the gases outgassed from a planet's interior; rich in carbon dioxide
  8. greenhouse effect
    the process by which a carbon dioxide atmosphere traps heat and raises the tempenture of a planetary surface.
  9. global warming
    the gradual increase in the surface temperature of earth caused by human modifications to earth's atmosphere
  10. plate tectonics
    the constant destruction and renewal of earth's surfaceby the motion of sections of crust
  11. rift valley
    a long, straight, deep valley produced by the separation ofcrustal plates
  12. midocean rise
    one of the undersea mountain ranges that pushes up from the seafloor in the centre of the oceans
  13. bassalt
    dark igneous rock that is characteristic of solidified lava
  14. subduction zone
    a region of planetary crust where a tectonic plate sides downward
  15. folded mountain range
    a long range of mountains formed by the compression of a planet's crust
  16. mare (plural: maria)
    one of the lunar lowlands filled bys successive flows of dark rock
  17. albedo
    the ratio of light reflected from an object divided by the light that hits the object. Albedo equals zero (0) for perfectly black and one (1) for perfectly white
  18. terminator
    the dividing line between daylight and darkness on a planet or moon
  19. vesicular bassalt
    a porous rock formed by solidified lava with trapped bubbles
  20. anorthosite
    rock of aluminum and calcium silicates found in the lunar highlands
  21. breccia
    rock compsed of fragments of earlier rocks bonded together
  22. fission hypothesis
    the theory that the moon and earth formed when a rapidly rotating protoplanet split into two pieces
  23. condensation hypothesis
    the theory that earth and the moon condensed from the same cloud of material in roughly their present oribtal relationship
  24. capture hypothesis
    the theory thatthe earth's moon formed elsewhere in the solar nebula and was later captured by earth
  25. large-impact hypothesis
    the theeory that the moon formed from debris ejected during a collision between earth and a large planetesimal
  26. ejecta
    pulverized rock scattered by meteorite impacts on a planetary surface
  27. rays
    ejecta from meteorite impacts forming white streamers radiating from some lunar creatures
  28. secondary crater
    an impact crater formed by debris ejected from a larger impact
  29. multiringed basin
    large impact feature (crater) containing two or more concentric rims formed by fracturing of the planetary crust
  30. magma ocean
    large areas of molten rock that solidified such as on the surface of the moon
  31. lobate scarp
    a curved cliff such as those found on Mercury
  32. coronae
    on Venus, large, round geological faults in the crust caused by the intrusion of magma below the crust
  33. composite volcano
    avolcano formed by successive lava and ash flows. Such volcanoes have steep sides and, on Earth, are found along subduction zones.
  34. shield volcano
    wide, low profile volcanic cone produced by highly liquid lava
  35. permafrost
    soil at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years; usually found in polar capsor within the soil at high latitudes or high altitudes
  36. outflow channel
    geological feature produced by the rapid motion of floodwaters; usually applied to features on Mars
  37. valley network
    a system of dry drainage channels on Mars that resembles the beds of rivers and tributary streams on earth