Chapter 15

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Chapter 15
2012-04-19 23:34:09

Medical Terminology
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  1. aden/o
    • gland
    • a group of cells that work together to produce and secrete substances such as hormones
  2. adren/o
    adrenal glands
  3. adrenal/o
    • adrenal glands
    • each of two adrenal glands sits on top of kidney, divided into outer adrenal cortex and inner adrenal medulla
    • cortex secretes aldosterone, cortisol, sex hormones.
    • medulla secretes epenephrine
  4. crin/o
    • secrete
    • this combining form refers to glands releasing substances such as hormones
  5. glyc/o
    • sugar
    • usually refers to glucose, primary sugar used by body for energy production
  6. glycos/o
  7. oophor/o
    • ovary
    • The ovaries are a pair of almond-shaped organs in female pelvic cavity; release ova for reproducation and female sex hormones
  8. orchi/o
    • testes
    • the testes are a pair of oval-shaped glands located in scrotum of males; releases sperm and testosterone
  9. ovari/o
  10. pancreat/o
    • pancreas
    • located in the abdominal cavity along lower curvature of stomach, secretes insulin and glucagon to regulate sugar levels
  11. pineal/o
    • pineal gland
    • a small pine cone-shaped gland in thalamus region of brain; secretes melatonin
  12. pituitar/o
    • pituitary gland
    • small marble-shaped gland that hangs down from underside of brain, also known as master gland
  13. thym/o
    • thymus gland
    • located in mediastinum of chest behind sternum and above heart; secretes thymosin which is important for immune system's development
  14. thyr/o
    • thyroid gland
    • located in neck; has two lobs on either side of trachea; secretes thyronxine and triiodothyronine, which regulate body's metabolic rate; also secretes calcitonin to lower blood calcium levels
  15. acr/o
  16. carcin/o
  17. cyt/o
  18. ophthalm/o
  19. toxic/o
  20. -centesis
    puncture to withdraw fluid
  21. -dipsia
  22. -edema
  23. -emia
    blood condition
  24. -oid
  25. -osis
    abnormal condition
  26. -pexy
    surgical fixation
  27. -rrhexis
  28. -uria
    urine condition
  29. endo-
  30. ex-
  31. aldosterone
    secreted from adrenal gland, regulates sodium levels
  32. cortisol
    secreted from adrenal cortex, regulates carbohydrate metabolism
  33. insulin
    lowers blood sugar levels by allowing sugar to enter individual cells
  34. glucagon
    raises blood sugar by stimulating liver to release stored sugar back into bloodstream
  35. parathyroid/o
    • parathyroid gland
    • are four small glands located on posterior surface of thyroid gland; secretes parathyroid hormone to raise blood levels of calcium
  36. melatonin
    plays a role in regulating body's circadian rhythm (24 hour clock)
  37. anterior lobe
    part of pituitary gland; secretes growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropin hormone, prolactin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormonw
  38. thyroid-stimulating hormone
    secreted from anterior lobe of pituitary gland, regulates activity of thyroid gland
  39. adrenocorticotropin hormone
    secreted from anterior lobe of pituitary gland, regulates activity of adrenal cortex
  40. prolactin
    secreted from anterior lobe of pituitary gland; stimulates milk production by breast
  41. melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    secreted from anterior lobe of pituitary gland; stimulates melanoctyes to produce more melanin
  42. follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
    secreted from anterior lobe of pituitary gland; work together to regulate activity of ovary or testes
  43. posterior lobe of pituitary gland
    secretes antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
  44. antidiuretic hormone
    secreted from posterior lobe of pituitary gland; regulates volume of water in body
  45. oxytocin
    secreted from posterior lobe of pituitary gland; stimulates uterine contractions during labor and birth
  46. acromegaly
    chronic condition developing in adults with excessive growth hormone; results in elongation and enlargement of bones of head and extremities
  47. adrenal feminization
    development of female secondary sexual characteristics (such as breasts) in male as result of increased estrogen secretion by adrenal cortex
  48. adrenal virilism
    development of male secondary sexual characteristics (such as deeper voice and facial hair) in female as result of increased androgen secretion by adrenal cortex
  49. corticosteroids
    in addition to its normal function , these hormones secreted by adrenal cortex also have strong anti-inflammatory action; can be used to treat severe chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis
  50. dwarfism
    being excessively short in height; can result from lack of growth hormone
  51. exophthalmos
    condition in which eyeballs protrude, such as in Graves disease; commonly caused by hypersecretion of thyroid hormones
  52. fasting blood sugar
    • (FBS)
    • blood test to measure amount of sugar in bloodstream after a 12 hour fast
  53. gigantism
    excessive growth of body due to hypersecretion of growth hormone in a child or teenager
  54. glucose tolerance test
    • (GTT)
    • test for initial diagnosis of diabetes mellitus; pt is given dose of glucose; then blood samples are taken at regular intervals to determine pt ability to use glucose properly
  55. goiter
    enlargment of the thyroid gland
  56. Graves disease
    condition reulting from hypersecretion of thyroid hormones; symptoms include exophthalmos and goiter
  57. hormone replacement therapy
    artificial replacement of hormones in pt with hyposecretion disorders; available in pills, injection and patch form
  58. insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    • (IDDM)
    • also called type 1 diabetes mellitus; tends to develop early in life; pancreas stops producing insulin; can be autoimmune disease; pt must take insulin injections
  59. noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    also called type 2 diabetes mellitus; typically develops later in life; pancreas produces normal to high levels of insulin but cells fail to respond; pt can take medication to improve insulin function
  60. tetany
    nerve irritability and painful muscle cramps resulting from hypocalcemia
  61. thyroid function test
    • (TFT)
    • blood test to measure levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream to evaluate thyroid function
  62. thyroid scan
    test in which radioactive iodine is administered and localizes in the thyroid gland; gland is visualized with scanning divice; able to detect thyroid gland tumors
  63. hormones
    chemical messangers used by the endocrine system