abio ch22

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Anonymous
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148756
Filename:
abio ch22
Updated:
2012-04-19 23:54:08
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bio
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Description:
chapter 22
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  1. RIM's
    • Reproductive isolating mechanism's
    • 1) ecological RIM's
    • 2) Temporal RIM's - breeding at diff times
    • 3) Behavioral RIM's - potential mates, meet but do not mate. (visual, auditory, chemical (moth pheromone)
  2. Hybridization and polyploidy
    • interbreed between 2 species
    • Hybrids are generally sterile
    • From species A and species B
    • genome of hybrid: "AB" (1 set from 1 parent, 1 set from 2nd parent)
  3. Chromosomes cant pair in meiosis:
    • possible solutions: reproduce veg.
    • -become polyploid - more than 2 sets of chromosomes
    • (50% of plants are polyploid)
  4. Where do polyploids come from?
    • From hybrids: AB hybrid
    • -errors in mitosis or meiosis
    • AABB tetraploid - meiosis fine
    • (wheat, tobacco, crops)
  5. How do we study macro evolution?
    • 1) fossils
    • 2) dating - radiometric
    • 3) morphology
    • 4) biochemical evidience/data
  6. Morphology:
    • organs are homologous (similar in form because of common ancestory)
    • ex: anatomy of bones in arms (bats, humans)
    • ex: organs are analogous - similar in form because of similar functioon (insects and bird wings)
  7. biochemical evidence/data:
    • ex: a.a. sequences
    • ex: DNA nucl. seq.
    • -If 2 like species have closer seq. they are closer related.
    • Cheat grass 0
    • Sunflower 9 0
    • sage brush 8 1 0
    • How many diff. in a.a. in a part protein?
  8. Evolutionary tree:
    • Time increases left to right
  9. Pace of evolution:
    • Gradualism
    • Punctuated equilibria
  10. Gradualism:
  11. Punctuated equilibria:
    • What causes big change:
    • a) appearance of polyploid
    • b) developmental change early in dev.
    • c) change in regulatory genes
    • d) genetic drift
  12. Extinction:
    • dissapearance of a taxonomic group
    • -physical factors (volacones, ice age)
    • -biotic factors (constantly occuring)
    • sometimes mass extinctions
    • 65 million years ago- most recent (theory asteroid)

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