ANAT.FINAL

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xiongav
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148838
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ANAT.FINAL
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2012-05-01 21:45:04
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Endocrine System
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Endocrine System
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  1. What is Endocrinology?
    Study of hormones & endocrine glands.
  2. What are the pure Endocrine Organs? (5)

    *Endocrine cells of epithelial origin.
    • 1) Pituitary
    • 2) Pineal
    • 3) Thyroid
    • 4) Parathyroid
    • 5) Adrenal Glands
  3. What are the organs containing Endocrine cells? (4)
    • 1) Pancreas
    • 2) Thymus
    • 3) Gonads
    • 4) Hypothalamus (neuroendocrine organ)
  4. Location of the major endocrine glands - see slide.
  5. The Endocrine System - an overview.

    ~is a system of what type of glands?

    Interacts closely w/ what system for physiological functions?
    System of "ductless" glands.

    Interacts closely w/ Nervous System.
  6. What is the difference between Exocrine vs Endocrine?
    Exocrine: chemicals pass through duct --> lumen.

    Endocrine: hormones travel through circulatory system to other cells.
  7. Hormone production & Exocytosis.

    Synthesis
    Packaging
    Storage
    Secretion
    • Synthesis
    • Preprohormone --> Prohormone

    • Packaging
    • Prohormone --> hormone

    • Storage
    • Hormone

    • Secretion
    • Hormone (end of any "pro" fragments)
  8. Chemical categories of hormones.

    Give examples:
    AA derivatives
    Peptide / protein hormones
    Steroid hormones
    AA derivatives: thyroid hormones & catacholimines.

    Peptide/protein hormones: tropic hormones & releasing factors.

    Steroid hormones: cholesterol derivatives like estradiol/testosterone.
  9. Mechanism of hormone action.

    Explain the pathways of each: (4 each)
    Peptide hormones (water-soluble; cell surface receptors)

    Steroid hormones (lipid-soluble; intracellular receptors)
    • Peptide:
    • 1) water-soluble hormone secreted
    • 2) hormone binds to receptor on surface of target cell
    • 3) cascade of biochemical reactions ends by activating an enzyme
    • 4) altered cell activity.

    • Steroid:
    • 1) lipid-soluble hormone secreted
    • 2) hormone passes through cell membrane & binds to receptor in interior of target cell.
    • 3) genes activated leading to production of new proteins.
    • 4) altered cell activity.
  10. Control of hormone secretion.

    Secretion is triggered by 3 major types of stimuli, what are they?

    Humoral
    Neural
    Hormonal
    Hormonal: release of hormone into the blood stream

    Neural: nerve fibers stimulate cells in gland.

    Hormonal: hormone released from a gland triggers release of a hormone from a target gland.
  11. Endocrine control mechanisms.

    Controlled by?
    Humoral
    Neural
    Hormonal
    • Humoral: (control from blood)
    • -parathyroid gland monitors Ca+2

    • Neural (control from symp. NS)
    • -adrenal medulla (norepinephrine/epinephrine)

    • Hormonal (control from pituitary gland)
    • -stimuli received from other glands.
  12. Thyroid gland.(aka "shield-like" cartilage)

    Histology of thyroid gland.
    -follicular cells are..
    -thyroid follicle
    -colloid, a fluid follicle storing what?
    follicular cells: simple cuboidal epithelial cells.

    thyroid follicle: circle of follicular cells

    colloid: protein-rich fluid in follicle stores THYROID HORMONE.
  13. Anatomy of thyroid gland - see slide.
  14. Production & secretion of TH.

    (5)
    • 1) Follicular cells synthesize Thyroglobulin.
    • -transported into colloid (storage)

    • 2) Follicular cells transport iodine into colloid
    • -3 or 4 molecules of iodine bind thyroglobulin.

    3) The hormone is stored in colloid as pre-t3 or pre-t4.

    4) Thyroid stimulating hormone - causes endocytosis of pre t3 or pre t4 back into follicular cell.

    5) TH exocytosis into blood vessel as t3 or t4.
  15. Too much TH equates to..

    Insufficient TH equates to..
    • Hyperthyroidism:
    • -bulging and protruding eyeballs, weight loss, hyperthermia.

    • Hypothyroidism:
    • Due to lack of iodine to synthesize the molecule. Goiter is an enlarged thryoid gland.
    • -low metabolic rate, hypothermia, impaired development.
  16. What cells secrete Calcitonin hormone?

    What organ stimulate Ca+2?
    Why is it secreted?

    Under what control?
    Parathyroid cells secrete Calcitonin.

    Stimulant: Kidneys

    Secretion: in response to elevated Ca+2 in blood, therefore, LOWERING Ca+2 in blood.

    Under Humoral control.
  17. Parathyroid gland.

    Anatomy - see slide.

    Histology - see slide
  18. Parathyroid hormone.

    Under what control?

    Synthesized/secreted by which cells?
    Under Humoral control.

    • Synthesized/secreted by Chief cells in response to low Ca+2.
    • -INCREASES Ca+2
  19. Adrenal glands.

    Anatomy - see slide
  20. Adrenal Cortex vs Medulla.

    Cortex (3 layers)
    -glomerulus
    -fascioculata
    -reticularis

    Medulla
    • Cortex:
    • glomerulus: aldosterone
    • fasciculata: cortisol & androgens

    • Medulla:
    • -epinephrine
    • -norepinephrine
  21. Autonomic control of Adrenal Medulla.

    Chromafin cells, are under what control?
    Neural control.

    Produce epinephrine/norepinephrine in response to fight/flight.
  22. Histology of Adrenal Cortex - see slide.

    Contains:
    Adrenal Medulla
    Adrenal Cortex
    -The cortex is divided into 3 subgroups:
    1) Zona Reticulus (innermost/smallest)
    2) Zona Fascialata (middle/largest)
    3) Zona Glomerulus (outermost cortex)

    Which does each secrete?
    1) Reticulus (rete = network): secretes androgens in response to aCTH stimulation.

    2) Fascialata ("fasicle of sticks"): Corticosteroids, glucocorticoids (cortisol)

    3) Glomerulus ("balls of yarn"): aldosterone
  23. Stress.

    A) Glucocorticoids (adrenal cortex)

    B) Catecholomine hormone (adrenal medulla)

    -List what each effects.
    -Which is for short term stress, long term stress response?
    -Which is innervated by the Symp NS, by ACTH?
    • Glucocorticoids (long term; adrenal cortex; ACTH)
    • -effects lipid & carb. metabolism, immune system, & damage repair.

    • Catecholomine horomone (adrenal medulla; Symp. NS)
    • -effects lipid & carb. metabolism, cardiovascular system, CNS.
  24. Name 3 things the Kidneys secrete.

    (hint: REC)

    Define each of the 3 secretions.
    • 1) Renin: angiotensinogen --> angiotensin I --> angiotensin II (in lungs) --> stimulates aldosterone production by adrenals.
    • 2) Erythropoietin: RBC production.
    • 3) Calcitriol: synthesized by Vit D, secreted in response to LOW PTH, increases absorption of Ca++ by enterocytes in gut.
  25. Endocrine functions of the Pancreas.

    Anatomy (see slide): where is it located?
    -(hint: behind which organ tucked into what letter shaped pocket of duodenum).
    Located in "retroperitoneum" behind stomach tucked into the J-shape pocket of duodenum.
  26. The Pancreas (card 2)

    What are the Exocrine secretions carried by pancreatic duct to duodenum to aid in digestion? (2)

    (hint: helps break down and neutralizes acid in stomach)
    • 1) digestive enzymes (pancreatic enzymes)
    • 2) HCO3- (bicarbonate; acid neutralization in stomach)
  27. The Pancreas (card 3); (see slide for cell illustrations)

    *Pancreatic hormones act under Humoral control of glucose concentrations in the blood.

    Endocrine functions of the Pancreas.
    -Pancreatic islets (of Langerhans) contain alpha, beta, & delta cells. (endocrine islets = AgBi/D cells)
    -Give each of their functions.
    1) Alpha: glucagon --> glycogen breakdown (liver releases glucose), increased blood glucose levels (BGL).

    2) Beta: insulin --> glucose uptake, decreasing blood glucose levels (BGL).

    • 3) Delta: produce Somatostatin (GH inhibiting hormone)
    • -Inhibits secretion of glucagon & insulin
  28. Heart.

    What is the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP); name what they stimulate & inhibit).
    ANP: stimulates H2O & Na+ loss to LOWER BP; inhibits ADH and Aldosterone release.

    *Acts under Humoral control from monitoring BP.
  29. The Pineal Gland (epithalamus)

    Pineal gland is a small gland on the roof of what cephalon?

    What types of cells does it secrete and what do these cells affect?

    (hint: affects body rhythm..)
    Small glandon the roof of the "diencephalon".

    • Contains "pinealocytes" that secrete Melatonin.
    • -acts under humoral control of LIGHT-SENSITIVITY.

    Melatonin: affects circadian rhythms & slow reproductive function.
  30. The Thymus.

    Where is it located? (hint: top of rib cage in chest)

    What substances does it produce? (2; hint: both start w/ thy)

    What happens as you age?
    Located behind Sternum in Thorax (see slide).

    • Produces:
    • 1) Thymosin: important for lymphocyte maturation & development.
    • 2) Thymopoeitin

    *Diminishes & regresses w/ age.
  31. Reproductive System (Gonads)

    Name the pathway of production for the OVARY/TESTES.
    FSH --> Ovary --> estradiol

    LH --> Testosterone

    *Both under hormonal control of Hypothalamus & anterior pit.
  32. Attach the analogy for the Hypothalamus, Anterior Pituitary, Peripheral gland/organ.

    (Vice President, Workers, President)
    • Hypothalamus
    • (President)

    • Anterior Pituitary
    • (Vice President)

    • Peripheral gland/organ
    • (Workers)
  33. The Hypothalamus "master controller of the Endocrine System"

    Name 3 functions of the Hypothalamus.
    1) Controls hormonal release from Adrenal Gland (via Sympathetic NS).

    2) Produce 2 hormones that are released in the Posterior Pituitary (oxytocin ADH aka vasopressin)

    3) Release Regulatory Hormones to control Anterior Pituitary.
  34. Anatomy of Hypothalamus & Pituitary.

    What does the "Adenohypophysis" contain? (3) (Anterior P.)
    -hint: pars..
    What does the "Neurohypophysis" contain? (3) (Posterior P.)

    What 2 parts are the infundibulum consist of?
    • Andenopophysis: ("gland undergrowth") = anterior pit.
    • 1) pars tuberalis
    • 2) pars intermedia (secretes MSH)
    • 3) pars distalis (secretes other anterior pit. hormones)

    • Neurohypophysis: ("nervous undergrowth") = posterior pit.
    • 1) median eminence
    • 2) infundibular stalk
    • 3) pars nervosa (releases oxytocin & ADH)

    Infundibulum: "funnel"; pars tuberalis + infundibular stalk.
  35. Formation of the Anterior/Posterior (adrenohypophysis/neurohypophysis).

    -What forms during week 3?
    -Late second month, what loses contact?
    -What happens during the fetal period?
    Week 3: Neurohypophyseal/hypophyseal pouch form.

    2nd month: Hypophyseal pouch loses contact w/ roof of pharynx.

    Fetal period: Both pituitary glands have formed.
  36. The Pituitary (Adenohypophysis; anterior pituitary)

    What 3 parts is it made up of?
    -hint: pars..

    Hormone secretion by the adenohypophysis is controlled by secretion of releasing factors produced by the ___ and delivered to the pituitary via the _____ ("" portal venous system)
    • 1) pars distalis (major part)
    • 2) pars intermedia (minor part) btwn DISTALIS & NERVOSA and the..
    • 3) pars tuberalis (minor part) around the infundibulum.

    Produced by the Median Eminence of Hypothalamus.

    Delivered to the pituitary via the hypophyseal portal venous system.

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