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name liver/ glall bladder assays
- bile acid
name the protein assays
- A/G ratio
we test ___ by putting into a EDTA tube, centrifuging, and drawing off supernatant.
We tests ___ by allowing it to clot for 30 minutes, centrifuging, and drawing off supernatent.
things that alter blood chemistry
how do we test for TP
refractometer and chem profile
tested by bromcresol green dye binding for chem profile
tested by measuring the diff in TP and albumin
heat precipitation test for chem profile on __ using an EDTA tube
screener test for liver dz. Its numbers can level out in a few days, normally.
non specific liver damage that can mean liver dz or necrosis. Its numbers will gradually change.
liver enzyme that we look for in large animals for hepatocellular damage or necrosis
a liver enzymes found more in younger animals. can be found from cartilage, placenta, and bones
a liver specific enzyme (period)
bilirubin is _a_?
it is found in 2 forms. What conditions are associated with each?
breakdown product of hemolysis
- Conjugated: bile obstruction
- Unconjugated: jaundice, liver failure, open bile duct
enzymatic test that will control fat break down and stabilization of cholesterol levels.
bile acids tests
bile duct obstruction is called what?
what conditions are associated with this?
DM, cushings dz, hypothyroid
a liver test in which you can not use whole blood because the RBC will release nitrogen which will artificially raise the levels.
what tube do we use instead?
free heparinized tube
name kidney assays
- BUN/ Creatinine
- Urine Protein/ Creatinine
- Uric Acid
- GFR tests
BUN stands for ...?
blood urea nitrogen
which three bacterial infections can cause an increase in urease and hence increase BUN
- 1- Staff. aureus
- 2- Proteus
- 3- Klebsiella
a by-product of muscle breakdown that lets us know how the glomerulus is working
a ratio that reflects GFR that should be less that 1.
BUN/ Creatinine ratio
ratio in which cystocentesis is necessary.
Protein/ Creatinine ratio
a kidney assay more so for avians thats shows their typical breakdown of nitrogen
name pancreatic assays (9)
- insulin tolerance
- glucose tolerance test
name exocrine pancreatic assays
found in pancrease, salivary glands, and small intestine that breaks down starches and glycogen.
what conditions cause an increase in its levels?
what tube do we never use?
pancreatitis, enteritis, ulcers of small intestine
dont use calcium binding ABT tube
filtered pancreatic enzyme that is filtered through the kidney that increases in pancreatitis and pancreatic dz
enzyme that breaks down protein in food that we look at to identify pancreatic insufficiency
enzyme we monitor to identify insulinoma
test we use to find the wave of glucose levels
name adrenal gland assays (3)
- ACTH stimulation test
- Dex Suppression test
an adrenal gland tumor can cause ___
cushings or addisons dz
name pituitary assays (2)
- GH evaluation
- GHRH response
increases GH will cause
agromegaly: increased growth
name 7 important electrolyte tests
Using a Ca containing tube to get Ca levels will ...
artifically increase Ca
Electrolyte found in bone, some RBC and has an inverse relationship with Ca.
hemolysed rbcs with ___ P number
electrolyte that pulls water and is usually accompanied by Cl
which tube do you never use to test this electrolyte?
heparinized salts (green tube)
electrolyte in which we use plasma to test because platelets will release it
electrolyte in every tissue
electrolyte that accompanies Na
hemolyzed rbcs will ___ this electrolyte
a electrolyte that is measured by CO2.
It is a buffer and will ___ if you let it sit
where is the best place to get a sample
change due to glycolysis
name misc assays (7)
- Lipid absorbtion
a muscle wasting found in hourse and cattle down on ground causing damage. It usually can not be localized.
what condition can usually cause this?
CK or creatinine kinase
anaerobic metabolism may mean not enough oxygen. Bacterial activity that breaks down RBCs.
stomach activity test for ulcers and GI function and lipid metabolism
ileum absorbsion and measurement
dark stool bc of early bleeding in stool that became digested
frank blood seen in or on stool
toxicology assays (5)
- hb denaturation
- ethylene glycol
basophilic stippling on RBCs means
pigs, horses, and cattle eat stuff with ... in feed and get poisoning
warfaring disruption of vitamin K needed for clotting factors 2, 7, 9, 10
CO, onions in dogs, maple leaves in horse, new methylene blue in cats cause
ethylene glycol is commonly known as ___
it causes what condition
irreversible kidney dz