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  1. name the fxn of the cremaster muscle:
    • when it is cold: contracts and draws the testes closer to the body to keep them warm
    • when it is warm: relaxes and the testes are suspended farther from the body
  2. name the fxn of the dartos muscle:
    • smooth muscle
    • when it is cold: contracts so that the scrotum becomes taut and wrinkled, holds the testes against the warm body
    • reduces the surface area of the scrotum, reducing heat loss
  3. name the fxn of the pampiniform plexus:
    • network of veins from the testis
    • countercurrent heat exchanger: prevents warm arterial blood from heating the testis and inhibiting sperm production
    • removes heat from arterial blood, so by the time it reaches the testis the blood is cooled 1.5 to 2.5 degrees than core body temp
  4. name the fxn of the leydig cells:
    the source of testosterone
  5. name the fxn of sertoli cells:
    • protect germ cells and promote development
    • nurtients, waste removal, growth factors and other needs for germ cells
    • secrete inhibin
  6. describe the composition of semen:
    10% sperm and spermatic duct sercetions

    • 30% prostatic fluid
    • thin, milky, white fluid
    • calcium
    • citrate
    • phosphate ions
    • serine protease (PSA) - protein hydolyzing enzyme
    • a clotting enzyme -activates prosemenogelin

    • 60% seminal vesical fluid
    • viscous yellowish fluid
    • fructose
    • other carbohydrates
    • citrate
    • prostaglandins
    • prosemenoglein - gets converted to semenogelin (sticks to walls of vagina, semen does not drain back)
  7. Image Upload

    The corpus cavernosum is labeled by the letter ___ in the image.

  8. Image Upload

    the cervix is labeled by the letter ___ in the image.

  9. Put the following in the correct order as sperm travel from the testes to outside the body:

    vas deferens
    seminiferous tubule
    prostate gland
    • seminferous tubule
    • epididymis
    • vas deferens
    • prostate gland
    • urethra
  10. The ______________ is a network of veins that helps cool the blood going to the testes.

    pampiniform plexus
    corpus spongiosum
    corpus cavernosa
    seminiferous tubules
    pampiniform plexus
  11. The specific stage used to describe when semen is expelled from the body is:

  12. The release of a mature oocyte from its follicle is called:

  13. Ovulation results from a/an __________ release of estrogen from the growing follicle that leads to an increase in ___________.

    increased; progesterone
    decreased; GnRH
    decreased; progesterone
    decreased; LH and FSH
    increased; LH and FSH
    increased; LH and FSH
  14. During which phase of the menstrual cycle is progesterone secretion highest?

    proliferative phase
    luteal phase
    follicular phase
    menstrual phase
    secretory phase
    secretory phase
  15. Image Upload

    lable the cervix
    lable the vagina
    lable the uterus(fundus)
    lable the clitoris
    • cervix: W
    • vagina: Y
    • uterus (fundus): X
    • clitoris: Z
  16. Image Upload

    labe the epididymis
    lable the galns penis
    label the testis
    lable the prostate
    lable the corpus cavernosum
    • epididymis: P
    • glans penis: R
    • testis: S
    • prostate: O

    corpus cavernosum: Q
  17. breifly explain what occurs during erection:
    • deep artery of the penis dilates; erectile tissues engorge with blood
    • trabecular muscle of erectile tissues relax; allows engorgement of erectile tissues
    • bulbourethral gland secretes bulbourethral fluid
  18. brefily explain what occurs druring emission:
    • ductus deferens exhibits peristlasis; sperm moved into amuplla, amuplla contracts, sperm is moved into the urethra
    • prostate secretes components of the seminal fluid
    • seminal vesical secrete components of the seminal fluid
  19. breifly explain what occurs during expulsion:
    • prostate releases additional secretion
    • seminal vesicles release additional secretion
    • internal urethral sphincter contracts; urine is retained in the bladder
    • bulbocavernosus muscles contract; and rhythmically compresses bulb and root of penis; semen is expelled (ejaculation occurs)
  20. ejaculation=
    emission + expulsion
  21. deinfe spermatogenesis and describe the 3 principal events:
    • the process of sperm production
    • occurs in the seminiferous tubules

    • 3 principal events
    • divison/remoldeling of large germ cells into four smaller
    • reduction of chromosome number by one half
    • shuffling of genes so that each chromosome of sperm carries new gene combinations
  22. define oogenesis:
    egg production
  23. define fertilization:
    when the sperm encounters the egg
  24. define ovulation:
    the rupture of the mature follicle and the release of its egg (oocyte)
  25. define lactation:
    the synthesis and ejection of milk from the mammary glands
  26. describe the contorl of ovulation by pituitary and ovarian hormones:
    • 1. maturing follicle secretes estradiol
    • 2. estradiol stimulates the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
    • 2a. estradiol stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete GnRH (stimulate AP)
    • 2b. estradiol (and GnRH) stimulate AP to secrete LH and FSH
    • 3. oocyte completes meiosis I; follicle rapidly enlarges and then ovulates
  27. describe the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, including the general changes in hormone levels in each phase:
    • development of ovarian follicles
    • secretion primarily of estradiol
    • coinsides with menstrual and proliferative phases
    • as the follicle grows it secretes more estrogen
    • increased estrogen causes the uterus to proliferate (proliferative phase)
Card Set:
2012-04-22 00:27:09
reproductive system

reproductive system
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