bio lab exam?

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lacythecoolest
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148904
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bio lab exam?
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2012-04-23 23:09:23
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labs 19 through 21
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bio lab exam, can't remember the number
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  1. autotrophic nonvascular organisms
    algae
  2. how long have algae been around?
    3 billion years
  3. bottom-dwelling plants and animals
    * seaweeds
    * mollusks
    benthos
  4. active swimmers
    nekton
  5. suspended plants and animals that are too small to move against a significant current
    Plankton
  6. planktonic animals
    zooplankton
  7. planktonic plants
    phytoplankton
  8. plankton that can be collected by drawing a fine mesh net through water
    net plankton
  9. planton that are too small to be cvaught in a plankton net
    nanoplankton
  10. living things
    biota
  11. plants and animals associated with the water surface
    * jellyfish
    * seaweeds
    neuston
  12. small plants and animals that live on the surface of benthic plants
    * good for the ecosystem
    aufwuchs or periphyton
  13. blue-green algae
    cyanobacteria
  14. * diatoms
    * yellow-green algae
    * golden algae
    * brown algae
    ochrophyta
  15. dinoflagellates
    dinophyta
  16. euglenoids
    euglenophyta
  17. red algae
    rhodophyta
  18. green algae
    chlorophyta
  19. * does oxygenic phtosynthesis
    * phycobilins
    * phycoerythrin
    * asexual by fission or gragmentation
    * gran-negative
    * prokaryotic cells
    Cyanobacteria
  20. whats responsible for blue-green color of cyanobacteria?
    phycobilins
  21. whats responsible for the red or brown color in cyanobacteria?
    phycoerythrin
  22. breaking up of a colony or filament
    fragmentation
  23. ordinary non-reproductive photosynthetic cells
    vegetative cells
  24. thick-walled, modified endospores loaded with food reserves
    * function as asexual survival stages that can tolerate severe environmental conditions
    akinetes
  25. cells specialized for nitrogen fixation
    heterocysts
  26. what accessory pigments can absorb UV light?
    phycobilins and phycocyanins
  27. * algae
    * simplest type of organization
    * cyanobacteria
    gleocapsa
  28. * cyanobacteria
    * simple unbranched filament that can glide or oscillate through water
    Oscillatoria
  29. * cyanobacteria
    * simple unbranched filament that can produce akinetes and heterocysts
    * pond and lake plankton
    anabanena
  30. * cyanobacteria
    * many filaments surrounded by a gelatinous sheath
    * marble-shaped colonies
    * wash up on fresh water shores
    nostoc
  31. two-part silicon dioxide(glass) cell coverings
    frustules
  32. * Ochrophyta
    * most abundant plankton
    * frustules
    * valves
    * fucoxanthin
    diatoms
  33. accessory pigment that causes the brown or tan coloration in diatoms
    fucoxanthin
  34. side view
    girdle
  35. top or bottom view
    valve view
  36. * filamentous eample of yellow-green alga
    * water felt
    * nuclei and chloroplasts distributed through cytoplasm of aseptate filaments
    vaucheria
  37. oogonia and antheridia
    gametangia
  38. * Orchrophyta
    * macroscopic seaweeds
    * fucoxanthin pigment
    * aqueous
    brown algae
  39. * brown algae
    * holdfast, stipe, blade and pneumatocyts
    * conceptacles on receptacles
    rockweed
  40. air bladders
    pneumatocysts
  41. reproduction branches have
    receptacles
  42. subsurface cavities on reproductive branches
    * house gametangia
    conceptacles
  43. entire plant is either male or female
    diocecious
  44. plant has male-only conceptacles and female-only conceptacles
    monoecious
  45. * brown algae
    * largest seaweeds
    kelps
  46. * red tides
    * girdling plagellum
    * weird shape
    dinophyta
  47. * has an eyespot
    * fresh water
    euglenophyta
  48. flexible internal cell covering of protein strips
    pellicle
  49. * phycocyanin
    * floridean starch food storage
    * corals
    rhodophyta
  50. form of starch that is slightly different from that found in green algae and land plants
    floridean starch
  51. this red alga is used as food by human
    porphyra
  52. what is alginate (from brown algae) and carrageenan (from red algae) used for?
    stabilize chocolate mild, dessert mixes, shaving cream, ect
  53. which organism is agar from?
    red alga chondrus crispus
  54. chlorophyta
    green algae
  55. * unicellular or complex multicellular
    * filamentous
    * colonies
    * found everywhere
    * asexual or sexual w/isogametes or heterogametes
    chlorophyta~green algae
  56. physically identical gametes
    isogamete
  57. * non-motile unicellular green algae
    * smallest autotrophic eukaryotes known
    * contaminant and source of protein
    chlorella
  58. * non-motile unicellular green algae
    * phytoplankton
    * wide morphological variation
    Desmids
  59. * non-motile unicellular green algae
    * coastal florida and the caribbean
    * large, uninucleate cell w/parasol-shaped cap
    Acetabularia (mermaids looking glass)
  60. * Motile unicellular algae
    * two flagella
    chlamdomonas
  61. crystals of accumulated starch
    pyrenoids
  62. * pond scum
    filamentous algae
  63. * filamentous algae
    * sexual reproduction by conjugation- sperm goes through tube
    spriogyra
  64. entire cell contents of one filament migrate through tubes into the cells of an adjacent filament
    conjugation
  65. * filamentous algae
    * has both antheridia and oogonium
    oedogonium
  66. * filamentous algae
    * nuisance in presence of nutrient pollution
    * brandhing filamentous structure w/large cells containing net-like chloroplast
    cladophora
  67. * Colonial algae
    * can be large large enough to see
    * water net
    hydrodictyon
  68. * colonial algae
    * hollow spheres made of individual cells
    volvox
  69. * multicellular
    * sea lettuce
    * isomorphic alternation of generations life cycle
    * edible
    Ulva, marine algae
  70. * multicellular green algae
    * freshwater algae
    * encrusted w/lime deposits
    * stonewort
    Chara
  71. * dense upper or outer cortex
    * mineral and water holding thallus
    * mostly associated with ascomycota
    lichens
  72. * lichen
    * basal layer consists of loose hyphae that adhere to the substrate
    * rock, soil or wood substrates
    crustose lichens
  73. * lichen
    * basal layer resembles the compact surface layer
    * bark substrate
    * can see apothecia on upper surface
    *
    foliose lichens
  74. * lichens
    * basal layer surrounds a hollow core for the thallus itself is upright and branched
    fruticose lichens
  75. small pieces of lichen produced on te thallus
    soredia
  76. What is the common life cycle with Bryophytes?
    • dominant haploid gamete producing generation
    • alternation of generations
  77. Name the 3 bryophytes
    • Liverworts
    • Hornworts
    • Mosses
  78. female gametangium
    archgonium
  79. male gametganium
    antheridium
  80. spores that the sporophyte generation eventually produces through meiosis
    *single type
    homosporous
  81. group of plants that may have first colonized land
    liverworts
  82. Name the two types of Liverworts
    • Leafy Liverworts
    • Marchantia, Complex Thalloid Liverwort
  83. midrib found in most mosses
    costa
  84. upper and lower side
    dorsiventral
  85. hair like unicellular strucures
    rhizoids
  86. male and female parts on separate plants
    dioecious
  87. non-leafy form
    thallose
  88. What makes liverworts "complex thalloid"?
    • non-leafy
    • air pores
    • air chambers
  89. two-prong forking
    dichotomously branched
  90. upper side
    dorsal
  91. lower side
    ventral
  92. pores on the supper surface of complex thalloid liverworts
    gemma cups
  93. serves as propagules for asexual reproduction
    gemmae
  94. embedded in stalked, flat-topped of liverwort
    antheridiophores
  95. develop under finger-like projections
    * umbrella-like
    archegoniophores
  96. Liverworts
    twist as they dry
    aid in the dispersal of spores
    elaters
  97. remnants of the old archegonium on liverworts
    calyptra
  98. * resembles liverworts
    * only a single large chloroplast in each cell
    Pyrenoids
    Hornworts
  99. Inostoc
    * elongated, cylindrical sporophyte
    Hornwort
  100. mature part of the capsule, sporogenous tissue surrounding a sterile center called:
    columella
  101. True mosses usually starts out as thin strands called
    protonema
  102. another name for gemmae
    bulbils
  103. functions like resting spores or miniature bulbs
    bulbis
  104. What sex is the moss thats broad and has splash cups?
    male
  105. What sex is the moss that has a narrow, pointy head?
    female
  106. antheridial and adjacent sterile structures on a true moss (microscopic view)
    paraphyses
  107. lid of a moss sporophyte
    operculum
  108. ring of tooth-like structures in a moss sporophyte
    peristome teeth
  109. Name the 2 different types of moss
    • True Moss
    • Sphagnum Moss (Peat Moss)
  110. a thread-like chain of cells that forms the earliest stage (the haploid phase) of a bryophyte life cycle
    Protonema
  111. filament-like structure that is associated with the fertile sporangia
    Paraphyses
  112. antarctic cyanobacteria
    necridia
  113. consists of fossilized remains of diatoms, a type of hard-shelled algae
    diatomaceous earth

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