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Cancer cells must:
- identifies preventable causes
- (prevention is better than cure)
permanent change in a cell's DNA; includes changes in nucleotide seq., alteration of gene position, gene loss or duplication, and insertion of foreign seq.
Dominant vs Recessive mutation:
- dominant: gain of function
- recessive: loss of function
the unrestrained growth and division of cells, reults in failure of cell division control.
a mutant form of a growth regulating gene that is inappropriately 'ON' , causing unrestrained cell growth and division.
a normal cellular gene that can act as an oncogene when mutated.
neoplasm [a solid or fluid-filled (cystic) lesion that may or may not be formed by an abnormal growth of neoplastic cells] that appears enlarged in size
migration of cancerous cells
benign vs cancerous tumor
- benign tumor:lacks ability to metastyze (moles)
- canceroues - migrates
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer.
- is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations
- As many mutations cause cancer, mutagens are therefore also likely to be carcinogens.
or anti-oncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
Genetic changes convert proto-oncogene into an oncogene:
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