endocrine system

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endocrine system
2012-05-06 19:36:39
anatomy physiology

chapter 16 endocrine system
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  1. a person who studies hormones and the endocrine organs
  2. produce non hormonal substances like sweat and saliva and have ducts that carry these to a membrane surface
    exocrine gland
  3. ductless glands produce hormones and release their hormones into surrounding tissue fluid
    endocrine gland
  4. stimulates heart, circulation, metabolism
  5. premenstrual syndrome is called
  6. tired from time zone change
  7. acts to inhibit glucagon on effects, decreases blood sugar levels, increases fat storage
  8. an above normal level of insulin in the blood of a person can be caused by sensitivity to insulin
  9. affects anterior pituitary gland to relase hgh
    growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)
  10. affects anterior pituitary gland to stop releasing hgh
    growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH) aka somatostatin
  11. affects anterior pituitary to release thyroid stimulating hormone
    thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
  12. affects anterior pituitary to release adrenocorticotropin
    corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
  13. affects anterior pituitary gland to release follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
    gonadrtropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
  14. affects anterior pituitary gland to release prolactin
    prolactin releasing hormone (PRH)
  15. affects anterior pituitary gland not to release prolactin
    prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH)
  16. affects anterior pituitary gland to release melanocyte stimulating hormone
    MSH releasing hormone (MRH)
  17. affects anterior pituitary gland to not relase melanocyte stimulating hormone
    MSH inhibiting hormone (MIH)
  18. a rare disease characterized by failure of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secret adh, results in the excretion of a large volume of extremely dilute urine
    diabetes insipidus
  19. consists of two separate iodine hormones
    thyroid hormone (TH)
  20. used to stimulate enzymes in almost all cells to stimulate glucose oxidation
    thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
  21. protruding eyes
  22. enlargment of the thyroid to to an increase in the size of follicles surround thyroid, an inability ot meet the needsof the body for T3
  23. regulates the levels of calcium and phosphate in blood
  24. affects calcium blood levels stimulating osteoclast activity to increase bone absorption
    parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  25. relax the pubic symphysis and dilate uterine cervix
  26. acts on thyroid gland to increase its production of hormones
    thryoid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  27. a gonadotropin which reguates the gonads and gamete production, girls- fix to control development of the ovum, ovulation and the levels of progesteron and estrogen
    male- initiate spermatogenesis
    follicle stimulatin hormone (FSH)
  28. a gonadotropin which regulates the production of the gonad hormone
    males to stimulate interstital cells of leydig to produce testosterone, in some cases it must be converted to dihydrotestosterone also governs descent of testes before birth
    luteinizing hormone LH
  29. undescended testicle
  30. angiotensinogen is a protein produced by the liver, normally found inactive in the blood, renin converts angiotensinogen to the active angiotensin 1, then converted to angiotensin 2 in the lungs, then it stimulates the secretion of aldosterone and thus controls sodium levels and water levels
  31. supresses the relase of adh and aldosterone and stimulates water and sodium ion loss in the kidney
    atrial natriuretic peptide
  32. outermost and will produce mineralocorticoids minerals na, h2o
    zona glomerulosa
  33. middle layer and produced glucocorticoids (sugar levels)
    zona fasciculata
  34. inner layer and produces both glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids
    zona reticularis
  35. used to alter dna transcription to effect gluconeogenesis and enhance effects of corticosterone
  36. levles are high after eating and low just before bed
  37. the production of some estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
    gonadicorticoids aka androgens
  38. most potent, stimulate heart rate, constrict blood vessels in non essential areas, dilate bronchioles, increase metabolism
    epinephrine aka adrenaline
  39. effects are similar to those of epinephrine and less effective on heart muscles,
    norepinephrine aka nonadrenalin