Med Surg Final Exam
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Med Surg Final Exam
What is abduction?
movement away from the midline of body
The muscle that is fan-shaped that covers the anterior chest and is an adductor muscle. It causes the shoulder to flex.
What is an MRI and why is it used?
it is used to detect large abnormalities of the brain
What is unicompartmental knee arthroplasty?
partial knee replacement
What is phantom pain? Why does it occur?
below knee amputation with pain in toes; nerves are still sending messages
What are nursing interventions involving a hip prothesis?
keep legs abducted when turning every 2 hours
What is volkmann's contracture? Is it permanent? What causes it? What is compartment syndrome? How should compartment syndrome? How should compartment syndrome be treated?
look for cyanosis, coolness, and pallor
What kind of nursing assessment (describe) would you do to assess a pt who has had ORIF?
s/s of infection
What is callus formation? What is the difference between osteoblast and osteoclast?
* its healing
What are the s/s of carpel tunnel? Who is at risk?
burning pain, tingling in hands
How would you describe phantom pain to a pt?
normal b/c nerve tracks continue to send messages to brain
Why would you assess capillary refill and blanching on a pt with fx tib/fib?
good circulation; atrial and peripheral
What is a fat embolus? Who is more prone to getting a fat embolus?
break of bone forces molecules of fat into the bloodstream
1st priority for an impending fat embolism is to administer
What is a Buck's traction? When is it applied?
* comfort and support before surgery
What is primary medical mgmt for soft tissue injuries
RICE--rest, ice compression, and elevate
Why is coumadin or heparin given prophylactically?
to decrease risk of thrombus formation
What is gout?
* tophi--uric acid crystals
What nursing interventions are important for a pt with RA?
rest 8 hrs at nigh and take naps for fatigue
Why is rest important for pts with RA?
therapy for fatigue
What are s/s of gout?
edema and discoloration of big toe
What is chronic osteomyellitis? Why is it imperative that trauma be avoided if possible?
infection of bone and bone marrow; teach pt to avoid trauma
When is a tetanus toxoid admin? How is it admin?
* compound fx of femur; given IM
What should be assessed when planning ways to increase a pts safety who has had an intertrochanteric fx:
* older pt; assess pre-existing health conditions
What is a hemiarthroplasty? What are nursing interventions for a pt who has had a hemiarthroplasty?
no crossing or hyperextending legs
What are nursing interventions for pts with total hip replacement?
Pallor, coolness, and decrease in capillary refill to hand and fingers post fx indicates?
What the s/s of postop shock? What is the recommeded position for shock?
* flat, supine position
What should a nurse do for a pt in shock postop?
What is lordosis?
increased lumbar curvature
What is the difference b/t RA and osteoarthritis?
Who is at the highest risk for osteoarthritis?
white and asian women
What is densitometry testing? How do you prevent osteoporosis?
take Ca and exercise
What foods have the highest concentration of purines? Who would this affect?
organ meats (brain), beans, liver, kidney
What is immediate mgmt for any fx?
splint and elevate
What foods are high in Ca?
broccoli and yogurt
What exercises would you recommend for osteoarthritis of hip or knee?
ride bike short distances
What are pathological fx? Who is at highest risk?
fracture for no reason; people on prolonged bed rest and cancer pts
What is the main purpose of traction?
align, stabilize, and provide muscle spasm relief
What are the s/s of an impaired neurovascular system following a musculoskeletal trauma?
slow capillary refill, unrelieved pain, dim to absent pulses