Med Surg Final Exam

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Med Surg Final Exam
2012-04-20 21:40:51

Musculoskeletal System
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  1. What is abduction?
    movement away from the midline of body
  2. The muscle that is fan-shaped that covers the anterior chest and is an adductor muscle. It causes the shoulder to flex.
    pectoralis major
  3. What is an MRI and why is it used?
    it is used to detect large abnormalities of the brain
  4. What is unicompartmental knee arthroplasty?
    partial knee replacement
  5. What is phantom pain? Why does it occur?
    below knee amputation with pain in toes; nerves are still sending messages
  6. What are nursing interventions involving a hip prothesis?
    keep legs abducted when turning every 2 hours
  7. What is volkmann's contracture? Is it permanent? What causes it? What is compartment syndrome? How should compartment syndrome? How should compartment syndrome be treated?
    look for cyanosis, coolness, and pallor
  8. What kind of nursing assessment (describe) would you do to assess a pt who has had ORIF?
    s/s of infection
  9. What is callus formation? What is the difference between osteoblast and osteoclast?
    * its healing
  10. What are the s/s of carpel tunnel? Who is at risk?
    burning pain, tingling in hands
  11. How would you describe phantom pain to a pt?
    normal b/c nerve tracks continue to send messages to brain
  12. Why would you assess capillary refill and blanching on a pt with fx tib/fib?
    good circulation; atrial and peripheral
  13. What is a fat embolus? Who is more prone to getting a fat embolus?
    break of bone forces molecules of fat into the bloodstream
  14. 1st priority for an impending fat embolism is to administer
  15. What is a Buck's traction? When is it applied?
    * comfort and support before surgery
  16. What is primary medical mgmt for soft tissue injuries
    RICE--rest, ice compression, and elevate
  17. Why is coumadin or heparin given prophylactically?
    to decrease risk of thrombus formation
  18. What is gout?
    * tophi--uric acid crystals
  19. What nursing interventions are important for a pt with RA?
    rest 8 hrs at nigh and take naps for fatigue
  20. Why is rest important for pts with RA?
    therapy for fatigue
  21. What are s/s of gout?
    edema and discoloration of big toe
  22. What is chronic osteomyellitis? Why is it imperative that trauma be avoided if possible?
    infection of bone and bone marrow; teach pt to avoid trauma
  23. When is a tetanus toxoid admin? How is it admin?
    * compound fx of femur; given IM
  24. What should be assessed when planning ways to increase a pts safety who has had an intertrochanteric fx:
    * older pt; assess pre-existing health conditions
  25. What is a hemiarthroplasty? What are nursing interventions for a pt who has had a hemiarthroplasty?
    no crossing or hyperextending legs
  26. What are nursing interventions for pts with total hip replacement?
    insertive spirometer
  27. Pallor, coolness, and decrease in capillary refill to hand and fingers post fx indicates?
    compartment syndrome
  28. What the s/s of postop shock? What is the recommeded position for shock?
    * flat, supine position
  29. What should a nurse do for a pt in shock postop?
    give oxygen
  30. What is lordosis?
    increased lumbar curvature
  31. What is the difference b/t RA and osteoarthritis?
    • RA-autoimmune
    • OA-degenerative
  32. Who is at the highest risk for osteoarthritis?
    white and asian women
  33. What is densitometry testing? How do you prevent osteoporosis?
    take Ca and exercise
  34. What foods have the highest concentration of purines? Who would this affect?
    organ meats (brain), beans, liver, kidney
  35. What is immediate mgmt for any fx?
    splint and elevate
  36. What foods are high in Ca?
    broccoli and yogurt
  37. What exercises would you recommend for osteoarthritis of hip or knee?
    ride bike short distances
  38. What are pathological fx? Who is at highest risk?
    fracture for no reason; people on prolonged bed rest and cancer pts
  39. What is the main purpose of traction?
    align, stabilize, and provide muscle spasm relief
  40. What are the s/s of an impaired neurovascular system following a musculoskeletal trauma?
    slow capillary refill, unrelieved pain, dim to absent pulses