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1, 6 glycosidic bonds lead to _____
What is the predominant carbohydrate storage in animals?
What kind of cells (2) in animals stores it?
- muscle and liver cells
What is the predominant carb storage in plants
What is used to break individual glucose molecules off of glycogen in liver?
glycogen phsophorylase-it leaves the glucose in a phosphoylated state so it can't cross the cell membrane
What is used in liver to break off the phosphate to allow the molecule to diffuse into the blood?
What kind of cells lacks phosphatase? And what kind of consequence that does have?
- Muscle cells
- Because of this, the phosphate can't be removed from glucose--> glucose can't leave-->therefore glucose is only used inside that muscle cell for energy, it can not be picked up by the blood
Liver glycogen provdes us with blood glucose: An absolute requirement for what system to get 50% of its requirement?
Exercise vs. glycogen
When you exercise, you use up all the glycogen in the muscles. Then you need to decrease the intensity of your workout
What do lipids consist of?
- Glycerol + carboxylic acid with a hydrocarbon chain (fatty acid)=
- glycerol + ester bond + hydrocarbon chains
- Together called a triglyceride
Ester bond is formed by dehydration
- The number of adipocytes do not change in life time, what changes is the amount of lipid stored in each cell
- -Liposuction changes the number of adipocytes, not the amount of lipid in each
Think of the relations of glycogen, and triacylglycerol to osmotic pressure
The reason that triacylglyceride molecules and glycogen are so that osmotic pressure does not make the cell burst
Which kind of fatty acids are better for us? Saturated or unsaturated?
- Unsaturated fatty acids
- But trans- unsaturated fatty acids are worse for us in our diet
What is the most important factor that gives lipid chains their physical property?
The number of carbons-short ones are water soluble, medium ones are insoluble
Fats provide energy through _______ ___________.
3 types of cell junctions
- tight junction
- gap junction
Zonacludens vs. zonadherens
- zonacludens: super tight
- zonadherens: not as tight