Misc. Nematodes

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kris10leejmu
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Misc. Nematodes
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2012-04-20 23:12:31
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  1. What is Oxyuris equi?
    horse pinworm
  2. Where are Oxyuris equi found?
    worldwide
  3. Who do Oxyuris equi affect?
    horses and donkeys
  4. How big are Oxyuris equi?
    • female: 5-15 cm
    • males: 1 cm
  5. What is the PPP for Oxyuris equi?
    5 months
  6. What is the definitive host for Oxyuris equi?
    horses and donkeys
  7. Can Oxyuris equi affect dogs and cats? people?
    no and no
  8. What is the intermediate host for Oxyuris equi?
    none
  9. What is the infection site for Oxyuris equi?
    cecum, colon, rectum, perianal area for egg laying females
  10. Describe the life cycle of Oxyuris equi.
    • after ingestion, eggs hatch in the small intestines and move to the cecum
    • larvae enter mucosal crypts
    • feed on mucosa and turn into adults and then into lumen (adults do not attach - they are scavengers)
    • adult females travelout to the anus to lay eggs on the perineal skin
    • eggs are rubbed off or fall on the ground and become infective
    • infective eggs are ingested
  11. What is the pathogen of Oxyuris equi?
    • L3 and L4 larvae may produce inflammation of cecal and colonic mucosa
    • Pruritis ani caused by eggs in perineal region
  12. What is pruritis ani?
    itchy butt
  13. How do we diagnose Oxyuris equi?
    • "rat tail" appearance
    • adults in feces (not eggs)
    • eggs found in perineal region - use scotch tape
  14. How do we treat Oxyuris equi?
    • antiparasitics
    • cleanse perineal region to decrease environmental contamination
  15. Who does Strongyloides papillosus affect?
    • cattle
    • sheep
    • goats
  16. Who does Strongyloides westeri affect?
    • horse
    • donkey
  17. Who does Strongyloides ransomi affect?
    pig
  18. Who does Strongyloides stercoralis affect?
    • dog
    • fox
    • cat
    • primates
    • humans
  19. Who does Strongyloides tumefaciens affect?
    cats
  20. What are the two phases of Strongyloides?
    • free living phase
    • parasitic phase
  21. Which Strongyloides are parasitic?
    only parthenogenetic females
  22. What are parthenogenetic females?
    ability to reproduce without having a male
  23. Which Strongyloides are free-living?
    males and females
  24. What do parthenogenetic females lay in feces?
    thin-shelled, partially embryonated eggs
  25. Where do Strongyloide eggs hatch?
    in the environment
  26. What are the two things that Strongyloide larvae can do?
    develop into infective L3 or undergo free-living generation
  27. How do the definitive hosts of Strongyloides become infective?
    by L3 that penetrates skin or is ingested (including transmammary)
  28. Transcutaneous larvae from Strongyloides are carried by circulation to _____ and then _____ and _____.
    • lungs
    • coughed up
    • swallowed
  29. Strongyloides cause infection via?
    • ingestion of L3
    • skin penetration of L3
    • transmammary in pigs, horses, cattle
    • transplacental in pigs
  30. What is the PPP of Strongyloides?
    3 to 14 days
  31. What are the infection sites for Strongyloides?
    • adults: small intestines
    • larvae: skin, lungs
  32. What is the pathogen of Strongyloides?
    • severe disease in young and immunosuppressed animals
    • chronic, asymptomatic cases
    • invasive: penetration of skin
    • pulmonary: symptoms of bronchial pneumonia
    • intestinal: burning sensation, bloody diarrhea
  33. How do we diagnose Strongyloides?
    • finding feces in larvae (will float in fresh feces, baermann technique, cent. sedimentation)
    • eggs are rarely found
    • serology - ELISA
  34. How do we treat Strongyloides?
    • macrolides
    • benzimidazoles
  35. What is Strongyloides stercoralis?
    threadworm in small intestine of dogs, cats, and humans
  36. What does Strongyloides stercoralis cause?
    • diarrhea
    • pneumonia
    • dermatitis
  37. How do we diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis?
    larvae float in fresh sample
  38. What is the PPP of Strongyloides stercoralis?
    1 week
  39. What can Strongyloides stercoralis do?
    autoinfection
  40. How do Strongyloides stercoralis cause autoinfection?
    juveniles in intestines penetrate wall then get into the circulation in the lungs, then go to re-infect intestines
  41. What are Oslerus (Filaroides)?
    dog lungworms
  42. What are the two different kinds of Oslerus?
    • Hirthi
    • Osleri
  43. What are Hirthi?
    • lung parenchyma
    • pass eggs
  44. What are Osleri?
    • trachea
    • pass larvae
  45. How big are Oslerus?
    • males: 2-3 mm
    • females: 6-13mm
  46. Who is the definitive host for Oslerus?
    canids
  47. What is the intermediate host for Oslerus?
    none
  48. What is the PPP for Oslerus?
    5 weeks
  49. Describe the life cycle of Oslerus.
    • infective L1 are passed in feces or saliva
    • L1 is ingested by dog
    • L1 migrate to lung parenchyma via the blood or lymph system
  50. How are Oslerus typically transmitted?
    • through the mama licking puppies
    • cage mates ingesting fresh feces
  51. What is the pathogenesis of Oslerus?
    • coughing
    • focal granulomatous reaction in lungs or trachea
    • usually no clinical disease but fatal cases of hyperinfection in immune deficient dogs
  52. How do we diagnose Oslerus?
    • finding larvae in feces (using zinc sulfate)
    • bronchoscopy
    • radiographic changes
    • usually diagnosed post mortem
  53. What is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
    cat lungworm
  54. Who is the definitive host of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
    felids
  55. What is the intermediate host for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
    snails and slugs
  56. Who can serve as the paratenic hosts for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
    • rodents
    • frogs
    • lizards
    • birds
  57. What is the PPP of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
    4-6 weeks
  58. What is the infection site for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
    terminal bronchioles and lung parenchyma of cats
  59. What is the life cycle of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
    • eggs are laid by females in lungs
    • L1 hatch and are carried up the bronchial tree and are swallowed and passed in feces
    • larvae penetrate snail/slug and develop to L3
    • cats acquire the infection either by eating snails or by eating a paratenic host
    • larvae migrate from the stomach to the lungs through the peritoneal and thoracic cavities
  60. What is the pathogenesis for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
    • usually nonpathogenic but...
    • in heavy infections: cough, dyspnea, emaciation, nasal discharge, and sneezing
    • lesions are grayish nodules that are firm, raised, and 1-10 mm in diameter
  61. How do we diagnose Aelurostrongylus abstrusus?
    • typical L1 in feces (baermann technique, fecal flotation)
    • radiographic evidence
  62. What is the definitive host for Capillaria?
    vertebrates
  63. What is the intermeidate host for Capillaria?
    none
  64. What is the PPP for Capillaria?
    40 days
  65. Where does Capillaria aerophila infect?
    trachea, bronchi
  66. Where does Capillaria plica and Capillaria feliscati infect?
    urinary bladder, renal pelvis
  67. Where does Capillaria putorii infect?
    small intestine, stomach
  68. Where does Capillaria bovis infect?
    small intestine
  69. What is the definitive host for Capillaria aerophila?
    dogs and cats
  70. What kind of life cycle do Capillaria aerophila have?
    direct
  71. What is the life cycle of Capillaria aerophila?
    eggs are coughed up, swallowed and passed in feces
  72. What is the PPP for Capillaria aerophila?
    5-7 weeks
  73. How do Capillaria aerophila become infected?
    • DH ingests infective eggs
    • larvae hatch and migrate from intestine to the lung in 7-10 days
  74. What is the pathogenesis for Capillaria aerophila?
    • deep, wheezing cough
    • whistling noise while breathing
    • open-mouth breathing
    • emaciation
  75. What is the pathogenesis for Capillaria plica?
    • cystitis
    • hematuria
    • difficulty in urination
    • often asymptomatic
  76. How do we diagnose Capillaria?
    • eggs - barrel shaped, with bipolar plugs
    • eggs in feces, urine, or sputum depending on species
  77. What is Trichuris?
    whipworm
  78. What are the different types of Trichuris?
    • Trichuris ovis
    • Trichuris discolor
    • Trichuris suis
    • Trichuris trichiura
    • Trichuris campanula
  79. What is the definitive host for Trichuris?
    dogs
  80. What is the intermediate host for Trichuris?
    none
  81. What is the PPP for Trichuris?
    3 months
  82. What is the infection site for Trichuris?
    • cecum
    • colon
  83. Describe the life cycle for Trichuris.
    • direct
    • eggs passed in feces and develop to the infective stage in about 1 month
    • DH ingests eggs
    • larvae penetrate the intestine, where they mature to adults
  84. What is the pathogenesis for Trichuris?
    • may be no clinicla signs
    • chronic/intermittent diarrhea
    • fetid (stinks), bloody, mucoid diarrhea
  85. How can we diagnose Trichuris?
    seeing eggs on fecal
  86. What do Trichuris eggs look like?
    oblong ova with bipolar plugs, yellow to brown with a single cell when passed in feces
  87. Are Trichuris easy to diagnose? Why?
    no, are intermittent egg layers
  88. What is the treatment for Trichuris?
    • fenbendazole (repeat in 3 weeks and then in 3 months)
    • milbermycin
  89. How do we control Trichuris?
    get rid of poop because eggs can survive in the soil for up to 5 years
  90. Which Trichuris are children infected with?
    T. vulpis
  91. What causes Trichinosis?
    Trichinella spiralis
  92. What is the definitive host for Trichinella spiralis?
    • pig
    • rat
    • human
    • bear
    • feline
    • fox
    • wolf
    • seal
    • walrus
  93. What is the infection site for Trichinella spiralis?
    • adults: small intestines
    • L1: gut wall, lymph nodes, blood, encyst in skeletal muscle primarily the diaphragm, masseter, and tongue
  94. Describe the life cycle of Trichinella spiralis.
    • adults in small intestine inject "prelarvae" into intestinal wall and then get into circulation
    • they encyst in muscle
  95. How are Trichinella spiralis transmitted?
    ingestion of undercooked meat results in transmission to new host
  96. What is the pathogenesis for Trichinella spiralis?
    • non-pathogenic in swine
    • in humans - periorbital edema, myalgia, fever, gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, pruritis, and skin eruption
    • eosinophilia usually exceeds 20%
  97. How long does it take to recover from Trichinella spiralis?
    6 months to a year
  98. How do we control Trichinella spiralis?
    • do not allow pigs to eat pork scraps, other garbage, including rate carcasses
    • examine carcasses
    • cook meat thoroughly to 170 degrees F
    • freeze meat for 20 days
  99. What are ways that will NOT kill Trichinella spiralis?
    salting, smoking, drying, microwaving, or decomposition of meat
  100. What are Parelaphostrongylus tenuis?
    meningeal worm
  101. What is the definitive host for Parelaphostrongylus tenuis?
    white tailed deer
  102. What is the intermediate host for Parelaphostrongylus tenuis?
    snail or slug
  103. Describe the life cycle of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis.
    • deer eats snail
    • goes to intestines
    • burrows to spinal cord
    • then to venous sinuses and subdural space of brain
    • females in brain CSF lays eggs into CSF
    • get into circulation
    • then to lungs
    • hatch
    • lodge in capillaries
    • break out
    • go up bronchial tree
    • coughed up and swallowed
    • L1s in feces
    • enters snail or slug and develops into L2 and L3
  104. Who are the aberrant host for Parelaphostrongylus tenuis?
    • llamas
    • alpacas
    • goats
    • sheep
    • moose
    • wapiti
    • caribou
    • black tailed deer
    • red deer
  105. What are the clinical signs in an aberrant host with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis?
    neurological signs: paralysis

  106. What is this?
    Aelurostrongylus abstrusus

  107. What egg is this?
    capillaria egg

  108. These are two different eggs. What are they?
    • top one is capillaria
    • bottom one is trichuris

  109. What is this?
    capillaria egg

  110. What are these?
    capillaria eggs

  111. What is this? What is "A"?
    • Oslerus
    • appendage off end

  112. What are these?
    Oxyuris equi eggs

  113. What kind of egg is this?
    strongyloide

  114. What kind of egg is this?
    strongyloide

  115. What is this?
    strongyloide

  116. What is this?
    trichuris

  117. What is this?
    trichuris egg

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