BIO 371 E2 LAB 10

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shockwave
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BIO 371 E2 LAB 10
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2012-04-23 15:44:36
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BIO 371 E2 LAB 10
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BIO 371 CELL E2 LAB 10 GSU 2012
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  1. photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert light energy to what?
    chemical energy
  2. what is the formula for photosynthesis?
    6 CO2 + 12 H20 --> C6H12O6 + 6O + 6H20

    LIGHT & CHLORPLAST GO TOP/BTM OF ARROW
  3. THE PRODUCTS OF THE LIGHT REACTION ARE WHAT?
    MOLECULAR OXYGEN, ATP, REDUCED ELECTRON CARRIER
  4. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE ATP AND REDUCED CARRIERS THAT ARE PRODUCED IN THE LIGHT REACTION?
    USED IN THE DARK REACTION TO CONVERT CARBON DIOXIDE TO CARBOHYDRATES.
  5. WHAT IS THE HILL REACTION IN WHERE DOES IT OCCUR?
    • OCCURS IN THE LIGHT REACTIONS.
    • IT IS THE TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS FROM WATER TO ELECTRON ACCEPTOR IN THE PRESENCE OF LIGHT AND CHLOROPLASTS.
  6. ALL COMPONENTS OF THE LIGHT REACTIONS ARE LOCATED WHERE?
    thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts
  7. WHERE ARE THE ENZYMES OF THE DARK REACTION IS LOCATED?
    stoma of the chloroplasts
  8. EACH PHOTOSYSTEM IS A LIGHT ABSORBING ASSEMBLY OF WHAT?
    chlorophyll a and B, carotenoids, cytochromes and other electron carriers.
  9. What is special about chlorophyll a?
    • molecule that transmit energy absorbed by other pigment molecules.
    • it absorbs light at longer wavelengths and hence at a lower energy level then do other chlorophyll molecules.
  10. THE EXCITED e- IN P680 OF PS II ARE TRANSFERED TO WHAT?
    PLASTOQUINONE (PQ)
  11. THE EXCITED e- IN P700 OF PS I ARE TRANSFERED TO WHAT?
    • FERREDOXIN (Fd)
    • AN IRON-SULFER PROTEIN
  12. LINKING THE 2 ps SYTEMS TOGTHER IS WHAT?
    • ELECTON TRANSPORT CHAIN.
    • CONSISTS OF CYTOCHROMES AND OTHER ELECTRON CARRIERS THAT ARE SELECTIVE REDUCED AND OXIDIZED.
  13. WHAT THE HELL DOES NADP+ STAND FOR?
    NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHATE
  14. WHAT PS SYSTEM SUPPLIES THE e- TO NADPH+?
    • PS I
    • (P700)
    • REMEMBER THAT IT'S THE OXIDIZED FORM OF NADP+ THATS CONVERTED TO NADPH
  15. IN WHAT PS DOES PHOTOLYSIS OCCUR?
    • P680 OF PS II.
    • THIS IS WHEN A TRANSFER OF ELECTONS, MAINLY FROM WATER, TO THE OXIDIZED P680 OF PS II.
  16. WHERE DOES PS II & PS I OCCUR?
    WITHIN THE THACKLOID MEMBRANE.
  17. THE FLOW OF e- FROM H2O TO NADP+ IS REFFERED TO AS WHAT?
    • NONCYCLIC PATHWAY.
    • BECAUSE THE e- START IN ONE COMPOUND (H2O) & END UP IN ANOTHER (NADP+)
  18. DEFINE NONCYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION.
    THE SYNTHESIS OF ATP VIA THE NONCYCLIC PATHWAY (LIGHT RXN).

    REMEMBER THAT ATP IS PRODUCED IN/BY ETC FROM PSII TO PS I
  19. NADPH and ATP produced by noncyclic flow electrons in thylakoid membrane are used by WHAT AND WHERE?
    used by enzymes in stroma during light-independent reactions.
  20. WHAT ARE THE PRODUCTS NONCYCLIC PATHWAY?
    • MOLECULAR OXYGEN
    • REDUCED e- CARRIER (NADPH & H+)
    • ATP
  21. T OR F ?
    ATP IS A PRODUCT OF BOTH THE CYCLIC AND NONCYCLIC PATHWAYS.
    • TRUE.
    • ITS REALLY MADE AT THE END OF PSI THE CYCLIC PATHWAY, BUT SINCE PSI IS ALSO PART OF THE NONCYCLIC PATHWAY, IT'S CONSIDERED TO BE PRODUCED IN THAT CYCLE AS WELL.
  22. DEFINE CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
    • THE SYNTHESIS OF ATP VIA THE CYCLITIC PATHWAY.
    • REMEMBER THAT THAT'S PSI (P700).
  23. WHEN DID HILL CONDUCT HIS EXPERIMENT?
    1937
  24. THE HILL REACTION STATES WHAT?
    • ISOLATED CHOLORPLASTS CAN EVOLVE OXYGEN IN THE ABSENCE OF CO2.
    • THE SOURCE OF e- IN THE LIGHT RXN IS H2O.
    • COMPLETED IN VITRO USING ARTIFICAL e- ACCEPTOR.
  25. WHERE DOES THE HILLRXN TAKE PLACE?
    ARTIFICAL ACCEPTOR INTERCEPTS THE e- BEFORE THEY REACH PS I, BUT AFTER THE MAJOR ELECTRON CHAIN. IT'S DONE AFTER THE PRODUCTION OF ATP.
  26. THE HILL RXN IS FORMALLY DEFINED AS WHAT?
    THE PHOTOREDUCTION OF AN e- ACCEPTOR BY THE H+ OF H20, WITH THE EVOLUTION OF O2.
  27. IN VIVO, THE FINAL e- ACCEPTOR IN THE LIGHT RXN IS _______.
    NADP+
  28. WHEN YOU MEASURE THE WILL REACTION WHAT IS HAPPENING TO THE DYE? WHY IS IT CHANGING COLOUR?
    • DCIP IS BEING REDUCED.
    • STARTS BLUE (OX) AND GOES CLEAR (REDUCED).
    • MEASURE AT 600nm
  29. WHAT DOES DCIP STAND FOR AND WHAT IS IT?
    • USED AS THE ARTIFICAL e- ACCEPTOR IN HILL RXN.
    • 2,6-DICHLOROPHENOLINDOPHENOL
  30. WHEN DCIP IS BLUE WHAT STATE IS IT IN?
    OXIDIZED OR REDUCED?
    • OXIDIZED.
    • IT STARTS BLUE AND THEN GOES CLEARLESS AS IT REDUCES.
  31. NAME THE INHIBITOR ON THE HILL RXN
    3-(3,4-DICHLOROPHENYL....) "DCMU"...A HERBASIDE

    AMMONIA IS AN UNCOUPLER
  32. AMMONIA IS AN UNCOUPLER OF THE HILL RXN. WHAT THE HELL DOES THAT MEAN?
    • SEPERATES THE PROCESS OF PHOSPHORYLATION FROM e- TRANSPORT.
    • THE e- TRANSPORT SYSTEM FUNCTIONS, BUT NO ATP IS PRODUCED.
  33. WHAT IS THE RESULT OF AMMONIA BEING ADDED IN ISOLATED CHLOROPLASTS?
    • IT'S AN UNCOUPLER. EFFECTS ETC. IT STILL FUNCTIONS BUT NO ATP PRODUCED AND RESULTS IN INCREASED e- FLOW.
    • NOTE: THERE IS STILL PARTICAL COULING SO OTHER UNCOUPLERS CAN BE MEASURED.
  34. DEFINE DCMU
    3-(3,4-DICHLOROPHENY)-1,1-DIMETHYLUREA
  35. HOW DOES DCMU WORK? WHAT DOES IT DO?
    BLOCKS BOTH ETC AND PHOSPHORYLATION BY INTERRUPTING e- FLOW AT HTE BEGINNING OF THE MAJOR ETC

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