DA Final Exam Anti biotics

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DA Final Exam Anti biotics
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2012-04-21 14:17:37
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Drug brand/generic, MOA, RoA, Indication/specificty
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  1. Penicillin G
    • Gen:
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • RoA:
    • Indications: Gram + cocci
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: AR, Rash, Fever, Broncospasm, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Diarrhea, N/V, Seizures
    • Resistance: Streptocci, Enterocci
  2. Penicillin V
    • Gen:
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • RoA:
    • Indications: Gram + cocci
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: AR, Rash, Fever, Broncospasm, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Diarrhea, N/V, Seizures
    • Resistance: Streptocci, Enterocci
  3. Oxacillin
    • Gen: Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic, Antistaphylococcal
    • Indications: Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus areus, streptococci
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: AR, Rash, Fever, Broncospasm, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Diarrhea, N/V, Seizures
    • Resistance:
  4. Dicloxacillin
    • Gen: Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic, Antistaphylococcal
    • Indications: Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus areus, streptococci
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: AR, Rash, Fever, Broncospasm, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Diarrhea, N/V, Seizures
    • Resistance:
  5. Nafcillin
    • Gen: Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic, Antistaphylococcal
    • Indications: Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus areus, streptococci
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: AR, Rash, Fever, Broncospasm, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Diarrhea, N/V, Seizures
    • Resistance:
  6. Ampicillin
    • Gen: Aminopenicillins
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Both Gram + and Gram -, Streptococci, Enterococci
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: AR, Rash, Fever, Broncospasm, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Diarrhea, N/V, Seizures
    • Resistance:
  7. Amoxicillin
    • Gen: Aminopenicillins
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Both Gram + and Gram -, Streptococci, Enterococci
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: AR, Rash, Fever, Broncospasm, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Diarrhea, N/V, Seizures
    • Resistance:
  8. Ticarcillin
    • Gen: Antipseudomonal
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: much resistance
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: AR, Rash, Fever, Broncospasm, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Diarrhea, N/V, Seizures
    • Resistance:
  9. Piperacillin
    • Gen: Antipseudomonal
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: much resistance
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: AR, Rash, Fever, Broncospasm, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Diarrhea, N/V, Seizures
    • Resistance:
  10. Cefazolin
    • First Generation: good Gram (+) Streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, modest Gram (-) rods
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: much resistance
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, renal impairment, Diarrhea, N/V
    • Resistance:
  11. Cephalexin
    • First Generation: good Gram (+) Streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, modest Gram (-) rods
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: much resistance
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, renal impairment, Diarrhea, N/V,
    • Resistance:
  12. Cefoxitin
    • Second Generation: less Gram (+) improved Gram (-)
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Good- Escherichia coli, Haemphilus influenzae, Moderate- Streptococci, Staphylocci
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, renal impairment, Diarrhea, N/V,
    • Special: 1st line for anaerobes (Bacteroides fragilis and species)
  13. Cefprozil
    • Second Generation: less Gram (+) improved Gram (-)
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Good- Escherichia coli, Haemphilus influenzae, Moderate- Streptococci, Staphylocci
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, renal impairment, Diarrhea, N/V, Vit K-I, Alcohol reaction
  14. Cefuroxime
    • Second Generation: less Gram (+) improved Gram (-)
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Good- Escherichia coli, Haemphilus influenzae, Moderate- Streptococci, Staphylocci
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, renal impairment, Diarrhea, N/V, Vit K-I, Alcohol reaction
  15. Cefotetan
    • Second Generation: less Gram (+) improved Gram (-)
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Good- Escherichia coli, Haemphilus influenzae, Moderate- Streptococci, Staphylocci
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, renal impairment, Diarrhea, N/V, Vit K-I, Alcohol reaction
    • Special: 1st line for anaerobes (Bacteroides fragilis and species)
  16. Cefotaxime
    • Third Generation Cephalosporins: some Gram (+) enhanced Gram (-)
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Good- Strept, enteric (+) rods, N.gonorrhoeae, Staphylo. aureus
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, renal impairment, Diarrhea, N/V,
    • Special: C. difficile
  17. Cefdinir
    • Third Generation Cephalosporins: some Gram (+) enhanced Gram (-)
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Good- Strept, enteric (+) rods, N.gonorrhoeae, Staphylo. aureus
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, renal impairment, Diarrhea, N/V,
    • Special: C. difficile
  18. Ceftriaxone
    • Third Generation Cephalosporins: some Gram (+) enhanced Gram (-)
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Good- Strept, enteric (+) rods, N.gonorrhoeae, Staphylo. aureus
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, renal impairment, Diarrhea, N/V,
    • Special: C. difficile
  19. Ceftazidime
    • Third Generation Cephalosporins: Lacks Gram (+) enhanced Gram (-)
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Good- Strept, enteric (+) rods, N.gonorrhoeae, Staphylo. aureus
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, renal impairment, Diarrhea, N/V,
    • Special: C. difficile, good for Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  20. Cefepime
    • Forth Generation Cephalosporins: some Gram (+) enhanced Gram (-) (more resistant to beta-lactamases
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Good- Strept, enteric (+) rods, N.gonorrhoeae, Staphylo. aureus
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, renal impairment, Diarrhea, N/V,
    • Special: C. difficile, good for Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  21. Imipenem
    • Carbapenems: Broad Spectrum, beta- lactamase resistant
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications:
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, N/V, Seizures
    • Special: requires Cilastatin (Dipeptidase-I)
  22. Meropenem
    • Carbapenems: Broad Spectrum, less (-), beta- lactamase resistant
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Imipenem-resist Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: HSR, N/V, Seizures(lower than Imipenem)
    • Special: Does not require Cilastatin (Dipeptidase-I)
  23. Aztreonam
    • Monobactams: No (+)or anaerobic, (-), beta- lactamase resistant (very)
    • Class: Beta-Lactam Antibiotic
    • Indications: Excellent- enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa, H. influenzae
    • MOA: Transpeptidase-I- stops crosslinks in peptidoglycan cell wall, binding various PBPs
    • SE: well tolerated
    • Special:
  24. Clavulanic Acid
    • Class: Beta-Lactamase-Inhibitor (plasmid)
    • RoA: oral, Inject
    • Combined with: Amoxicillin or Ticarcillin
  25. Sulbactam
    • Class: Beta-Lactamase-Inhibitor (plasmid)
    • RoA: oral, Inject
    • Combined with: Ampicillin
  26. Tazobactam
    • Class: Beta-Lactamase-Inhibitor (plasmid)
    • RoA: Injection
    • Combined with: Piperacillin
  27. Sulfamethoxazole
    • Sulfonamides- PABA analog (bacteriostatic)
    • Spectrum: (+), (-)
    • MOA: compete with PABA for binding dihydropteroate synthase
    • Resistant: Neisseria meningitidis, Shigella, E. coli
    • Resistant mech: decreased binding, efflux, alternate pathway, out competed by PABA
    • Treat: UTI, Nocardiosis, Toxoplasmosis
    • SE: crystalluria, HSR, rash, N/V, anorexia, (rare fatal live necrosis)
    • DD: Warfarin, sulfonylurea, phenytoin
  28. Trimethoprim
    • DHFR-highly selective for prokaryotic
    • Combined with sulfamethoxazole
  29. Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole
    • DHFR and Sulfonamide (competes w PABA)
    • Spectrum: many (+) and (-)
    • Resistance: rapidly increasing
    • Treat: UUTI, C. Bronchitis, Otitis media, Acute maxillary sinusitis, GI infections- Shigellosis, Typhoid, E.coli
    • Special: NOT Ecoli 0157:H7- risk hemolytic-uremic syndrome due to shiga toxin release
    • AE: rash, N/V, Glossitis, Stomatitis and sulfanomides SE
  30. Norfloxacin
    • Fluoroquinolone- Bactericidal
    • Selectivity: Broad range (developing resistance)
    • MOA: DNA gyrase (+), Topoisomerase IV (-)
    • Treat: UTI, RI, STD, Infections (GI, bone, joint, soft tissue), GI infections- Shigellosis, Typhoid, Cholera
    • SE: Cat C, N/V, GI, Tendonitis or tendon rupture
    • Special: NOT Ecoli 0157:H7- risk hemolytic-uremic
  31. Ciprofloxacin
    • Fluoroquinolone- Bactericidal
    • Selectivity: Broad range (developing resistance)
    • MOA: DNA gyrase (+), Topoisomerase IV (-)
    • Treat: UTI, RI, STD, Infections (GI, bone, joint, soft tissue), GI infections- Shigellosis, Typhoid, Cholera
    • SE: Cat C, N/V, GI, Tendonitis or tendon rupture
    • Special: NOT Ecoli 0157:H7- risk hemolytic-uremic, prophylaxis for Anthrax
  32. Ofloxacin
    • Fluoroquinolone- Bactericidal
    • Selectivity: Broad range (developing resistance)
    • MOA: DNA gyrase (+), Topoisomerase IV (-)
    • Treat: UTI, RI, STD, Infections (GI, bone, joint, soft tissue), GI infections- Shigellosis, Typhoid, Cholera
    • SE: Cat C, N/V, GI, Tendonitis or tendon rupture
    • Special: NOT Ecoli 0157:H7- risk hemolytic-uremic
  33. Levofloxacin
    • Fluoroquinolone- Bactericidal
    • Selectivity: Broad range (developing resistance)
    • MOA: DNA gyrase (+), Topoisomerase IV (-)
    • Treat: UTI, RI, STD, Infections (GI, bone, joint, soft tissue), GI infections- Shigellosis, Typhoid, Cholera
    • SE: Cat C, N/V, GI, Tendonitis or tendon rupture
    • Special: NOT Ecoli 0157:H7- risk hemolytic-uremic
  34. Gemifloxacin
    • Fluoroquinolone- Bactericidal
    • Selectivity: Broad range (developing resistance)
    • MOA: DNA gyrase (+), Topoisomerase IV (-)
    • Treat: UTI, RI, STD, Infections (GI, bone, joint, soft tissue), GI infections- Shigellosis, Typhoid, Cholera
    • SE: Cat C, N/V, GI, Tendonitis or tendon rupture
    • Special: NOT Ecoli 0157:H7- risk hemolytic-uremic
  35. Moxifloxacin
    • Fluoroquinolone- Bactericidal
    • Selectivity: Broad range (developing resistance)
    • MOA: DNA gyrase (+), Topoisomerase IV (-)
    • Treat: UTI, RI, STD, Infections (GI, bone, joint, soft tissue), GI infections- Shigellosis, Typhoid, Cholera
    • SE: Cat C, N/V, GI, Tendonitis or tendon rupture
    • Special: NOT Ecoli 0157:H7- risk hemolytic-uremic
  36. Methenamine
    • Antiseptic, Antibiotic
    • Spectrum: All bacteria except pH raising
    • ROA: oral
    • MOA: prodrug converts to formaldehyde, keeps urine acidic
    • Treat: Chronic UTI
    • Resistance: none
    • SE: N/GI, rash, dysuria
  37. Nitrofurantoin
    • Nitrofuran, Antibiotic (bacterialcidal)
    • Spectrum: Broad (some resistance)
    • ROA: oral
    • MOA: reduced by bacterial flavoprotiens to produce reactive intermediates, dysrupts most cell functions
    • Treats: Chronic UTI
    • SE: Cat B, N/V, loss of apetite, Nueropathy
  38. Phenazopyridine
    • Analgesic
    • MOA: unknown, but coats UT to sooth
    • Treat: burning, urgency frequency of urination in UTI
    • SE: Cat B, turns urine orange/red
  39. Streptomycin
    • Aminoglycoside (bactericidal)
    • Spectrum: Both (+), (-), aerobic
    • ROA: deep IM, IV(poorly absorbed in GI)
    • MOA: Binds 30s ribosomal subunit, blocks initiation, elicits termination, incorporates wrong AA
    • Treat: Endocarditis, Tularemia, Plague, TB
    • ADR: Ototoxicity, Vestibular balance issues, N/V vertigo, auditory loss, Optic nerve, neuromuscular blockage, Nephrotoxicity
    • Special: Last choice
  40. Amikacin
    • Aminoglycoside (bactericidal)
    • Spectrum: Narrow (-) rods-aerobic (E.coli, pseudomonas)
    • ROA: deep IM, IV(poorly absorbed in GI)
    • MOA: Binds 30s ribosomal subunit, blocks initiation, elicits termination, incorporates wrong AA
    • Treat: Endocarditis, Tularemia, Plague, TB, Genta/tobra resistant (-), Pyelonephritis
    • ADR: Ototoxicity, Vestibular balance issues, N/V vertigo, auditory loss, Optic nerve, neuromuscular blockage, Nephrotoxicity
    • Special: Last choice (toxicities), never mix w/ penicillins/ cephalosporins, poor- enterococci
  41. Kanamycin
    • Aminoglycoside (bactericidal)
    • Spectrum: Narrow (-) rods-aerobic (E.coli, pseudomonas)
    • ROA: deep IM, IV(poorly absorbed in GI)
    • MOA: Binds 30s ribosomal subunit, blocks initiation, elicits termination, incorporates wrong AA
    • Treat: Endocarditis, Tularemia, Plague, TB, Genta/tobra resistant (-), Pyelonephritis
    • ADR: Ototoxicity, Vestibular balance issues, N/V vertigo, auditory loss, Optic nerve, neuromuscular blockage, Nephrotoxicity
    • Special: Last choice (toxicities), never mix w/ penicillins/ cephalosporins, poor- enterococci
  42. Neomycin
    • Aminoglycoside (bactericidal)
    • Spectrum: Broad, (+) (-)
    • ROA: Topical, oral (surgery)
    • Combo: Polymixin B, bacitracin
    • ADR: Highest nephrotoxic (not systemically given)
  43. Tobramycin
    • Aminoglycoside (bactericidal)
    • Spectrum: Narrow (-) rods-aerobic (E.coli, pseudomonas)
    • ROA: deep IM, IV(poorly absorbed in GI)
    • MOA: Binds 30s ribosomal subunit, blocks initiation, elicits termination, incorporates wrong AA
    • Treat: Endocarditis, Tularemia, Plague, TB, Pyelonephritis
    • ADR: Ototoxicity, Vestibular balance issues, N/V vertigo, auditory loss, Optic nerve, neuromuscular blockage, Nephrotoxicity
    • Special: Last choice (toxicities), never mix w/ penicillins/ cephalosporins, Best against P.aeruginosa, Poor- enterococci
  44. Gentamycin
    • Aminoglycoside (bactericidal)
    • Spectrum: Narrow (-) rods-aerobic (E.coli, pseudomonas)
    • ROA: deep IM, IV(poorly absorbed in GI)
    • MOA: Binds 30s ribosomal subunit, blocks initiation, elicits termination, incorporates wrong AA
    • Treat: Endocarditis, Tularemia, Plague, TB, Pyelonephritis
    • ADR: Ototoxicity, Vestibular balance issues, N/V vertigo, auditory loss, Optic nerve, neuromuscular blockage, Nephrotoxicity
    • Special: Last choice (toxicities), never mix w/ penicillins/ cephalosporins
  45. Netilmicin
    • Aminoglycoside (bactericidal)
    • Spectrum: Narrow (-) rods-aerobic (E.coli, pseudomonas)
    • ROA: deep IM, IV(poorly absorbed in GI)
    • MOA: Binds 30s ribosomal subunit, blocks initiation, elicits termination, incorporates wrong AA
    • Treat: Endocarditis, Tularemia, Plague, TB, Pyelonephritis
    • ADR: Ototoxicity, Vestibular balance issues, N/V vertigo, auditory loss, Optic nerve, neuromuscular blockage, Nephrotoxicity
    • Special: Last choice (toxicities), never mix w/ penicillins/ cephalosporins, poor- enterococci
  46. Oxytetracycline
    • Tetracycline
    • Spectrum: Broad, more (+) than (-), an/aerobic
    • ROA: oral, topical, parenteral ( impaired by dairy/antacids)
    • MOA: binds A site of 30s ribosomal subunit, prevents amionacyl tRNA from binding for protein synthesis
    • Treats: Anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, cholera, spirochetes, rickettsiar, acne
    • ADR: Teeth discoloration, N, D, Photosensitivity, hepatic toxicity, renal toxicity, vestibular, superinfections
    • Special: renal Clearnace
    • Contraindicated: Pregnant, under 8yrs
  47. Demeclocycline
    • Tetracycline
    • Spectrum: Broad, more (+) than (-), an/aerobic
    • ROA: oral, topical, parenteral ( impaired by dairy/antacids)
    • MOA: binds A site of 30s ribosomal subunit, prevents amionacyl tRNA from binding for protein synthesis
    • Treats: Anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, cholera, spirochetes, rickettsiar, acne
    • ADR: Teeth discoloration, N, D, Photosensitivity, hepatic toxicity, renal toxicity, vestibular, superinfections
    • Special: Renal clearance
    • Contraindicated: Pregnant, under 8yrs
  48. Doxycycline
    • Tetracycline
    • Spectrum: Broad, more (+) than (-), an/aerobic
    • ROA: oral, topical, parenteral ( impaired by dairy/antacids)
    • MOA: binds A site of 30s ribosomal subunit, prevents amionacyl tRNA from binding for protein synthesis
    • Treats: Anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, cholera, spirochetes, rickettsiar, acne
    • ADR: Teeth discoloration, N, D, Photosensitivity, hepatic toxicity, renal toxicity, vestibular, superinfections
    • Special: Hepatic and Renal clearance
    • Contraindicated: Pregnant, under 8yrs
  49. minocycline
    • Tetracycline
    • Spectrum: Broad, more (+) than (-), an/aerobic
    • ROA: oral, topical, parenteral ( impaired by dairy/antacids)
    • MOA: binds A site of 30s ribosomal subunit, prevents amionacyl tRNA from binding for protein synthesis
    • Treats: Anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, cholera, spirochetes, rickettsiar, acne
    • ADR: Teeth discoloration, N, D, Photosensitivity, hepatic toxicity, renal toxicity, vestibular, superinfections
    • Special: Hepatic clearance
    • Contraindicated: Pregnant, under 8yrs
  50. Chloramphenicol
    • Chloramphenicol, Antibiotic (bacteriostatic)
    • Spectrum: most (-), most (+) anaerobic cocci
    • ROA: oral, parenteral
    • MOA: Binds 50s, blocks P to A site (transpeptidation) blocks protein synthesis
    • Treat: typhoid, meningitis, rickettsia (rocky mountain spotted fever)
    • ADR: Hematological toxicity, N/V, D, taste, Optic neuritis in children,
    • Special: Gray baby syndrome, last resort
    • DD: inhibits P450, maccrolides/clindamycin bind competitivly
  51. Erythromycin
    • Macrolide (bacteriostatic, high levels- cidal)
    • ROA: Oral (enteric coated) IV, topical
    • Spectrum: good (-), less (+) than other macrolides
    • MOA: Bind 50s, blocks translocation from P to A for protein synthesis
    • ADE: rare hepatotoxicity, N/V, D, GI, arrhythmias, transient auditory impairment
    • Special: interfere cyp450
  52. Clarithromycin
    • Macrolide (bacteriostatic, high levels- cidal)
    • ROA: Oral,
    • Spectrum: good (-), less (+) than other macrolides
    • MOA: Bind 50s, blocks translocation from P to A for protein synthesis
    • ADE: rare hepatotoxicity, N/V, D, GI, arrhythmias, transient auditory impairment
    • Special: interfere cyp450
  53. Azithromycin
    • Macrolide (bacteriostatic, high levels- cidal)
    • ROA: Oral, IV, topical
    • Spectrum: good (-), less (+) than other macrolides
    • MOA: Bind 50s, blocks translocation from P to A for protein synthesis
    • ADE: rare hepatotoxicity, N/V, D, GI, arrhythmias, transient auditory impairment
    • Special: anti-protozoa (tosoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium, plasmodium spp)
  54. Telithromycin
    • Ketolide
    • ROA: oral
    • MOA: Bind 50s, blocks translocation for protein synthesis
    • ADR: significant hepatotoxicity
  55. Clindamycin
    • Lincosamide antiboitic (bacteriostatic)
    • Spectrum: many (+), some (-), macrolide-resistant
    • ROA: oral, IV, IM, topical
    • MOA: Bind 50s, blocks translocation from P to A for protein synthesis
    • ADR: D, C. diff, rash
  56. Quinupristin/Dalfopristin
    • Strptogramins (combo of B-30% and A-70%) (bactericidal)
    • Spectrum: many (+), low (-)
    • MOA: Bind 50s, B binds same as macrolides, A binds nearby to inhibit protein synthesis
    • Resistance: many ways
    • ADR: Arthralgia, Myalgia,
    • Special: Inhibitor cyp450, reserved for MDR (E. fecium, S. aureus, S. pryogenes)
  57. Linezolid
    • Oxazolidinone (bacteriostatic/cidal)
    • Spectrum: (+), ineffective (-)
    • ROA: Oral, IV
    • MOA: binds 50s, inhibits formation of 70s for protein synthesis
    • Resistance: very limited (mutations in binding site)
    • ADR: GI, rash, headache, leukopenia, throbocytopenia
    • Special: MDR (E. faecium, S. aureus, S. pyogenes)
  58. Polymixin B
    • Amphipathic antibiotic
    • Spectrum: (-), resistant to other antibiotics
    • ROA: topical, Opthalmic, Otic, oral (surgery), systemic (last)
    • MOA: disrupts cell membrane forming pore
    • SE: few w/ topical, exteremly nephrotoxic IV
  59. Colistin
    • Amphipathic, Polymixin E antibiotic
    • Spectrum: (-), resistant to other antibiotics
    • ROA: topical, Opthalmic, Otic, oral (surgery), systemic (last)
    • MOA: disrupts cell membrane forming pore
    • SE: few w/ topical, exteremly nephrotoxic IV
  60. Vancomycin
    • Glycopeptide (bactericidal)
    • Spectrum: only (+), MRS, MDR (some resistance)
    • ROA: IV, oral for C.diff
    • MOA: binds last 2 alanines of Lipid Carrier Bactoprenol
    • NAG/NAM pento-peptide preventing incorporation into peptidoglycan layer, blocks cell wall synthesis
    • ADR: Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, Red-man, Chills/Fever
    • Special: Vanco resistant enterococci major nosocomial pathogen, MRS has developed
  61. Teicoplanin
    • Glycopeptide (bactericidal)
    • Spectrum: only (+), MRS, MDR (some resistance)
    • ROA: IV, IM, oral for C.diff
    • MOA: binds last 2 alanines of Lipid Carrier BactoprenolNAG/NAM pento-peptide preventing incorporation into peptidoglycan layer, blocks cell wall synthesis
    • ADR: Ototoxicity,HSR, rash, Chills/Fever
    • Special: Vanco resistant enterococci major nosocomial pathogen, MRS has developed
  62. Daptomycin
    • Lipopeptide (bactericidal)
    • Spectrum: (+), Manco resistant
    • ROA: IV, toxic IM, oral poorly absorbed
    • MOA: binds membrane depolarizing and lossing membrane potential, no energy production
    • ADE: muscle pain, weakness
    • Resistance: little
  63. Bacitracin
    • Antibiotic
    • Spectrum: many (+)
    • ROA: topically
    • MOA: Inhibits transporter to cell wall synthesis
    • ADR: little topically, Nephrotoxiciity parenterally
    • Combined: Neosporin (neomycin, polymixinB, bacitracin)

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