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Richard is nominated to be Protector for Edward V in his will. What do the Woodvilles want to do?
- Woodvilles do not want anyone to remove the future king from their control.
- They therefore want to overthrow the will.
Give examples of why the Woodvilles are in a strong position at this time. Therefore what verdict is made by the council about the will?
- Earl Rivers & Grey with future king at Ludlow
- Councl packed with Woodville supporters
- Dorset has treasure as Deputy Constable of the Tower
- Therefore, Council reject the will, and state power should rest in minority council, with Gloucester as head of this.
Between who and who was there a heated argument in the council?
- Between Hastings and the Woodvilles over the will.
- Hastings wants to support Edward IV's legacy.
Who does Gloucester have much support from at this point? Give examples.
- The families that have suffered under the Woodville influence over Edward IV.
- Herbert, Buckingham, Lord Howard, and Lord Berkeley.
What does Richard do that makes the Woodvilles lower their guard?
- Sends a letter of condolence to the Woodvilles.
- They lower their guard and don't rush Edward V to London.
Who does Gloucester meet with and what does he do? What do other Woodvilles do?
- Meets with Buckingham at Northampton.
- Rivers and Grey (who are accompanying the new king) meet them there, and Gloucester arrests them and sends them to his strongholds in the north.
- Queen, Dorset, Richard Duke of York flee into sanctuary at Westminster.
What do Gloucester and Buckingham do in May 1483? What does the council confirm?
- They arrive in London (with Edward V) and Edward V is put in the Tower of London.
- Council confirm Gloucester's role as Protector.
What concerns does Richard have as Protector at this point?
- Edward V's coronation is planned for 22nd of June - after that date Richard no longer required as Protector.
- Then, open to vengeance of a king dominated by Woodvilles
How did Richard consolidate his position?
- Through patronage and appointment
- eg. Buckingham Chief Justice & Chamberlain in north and south Wales.
- Earl of Northumberland and Lord Howard benefit too.
- Clear that former officials and servants of EdIV benefit.
Give possible reasons of why Richard usurped the throne?
- Richard's fear of the Woodvilles and how the new king would favour them.
- Now that he had arrested Rivers and Grey, Edward V may not forgive him (especially as he was cared for by Earl Rivers etc)
- Richard ruthless and also more greedy as he saw the potential increase in power if he usurped the throne. (perhaps a man of his time?)
Who does Gloucester execute, once he, Buckingham and Howard feel powerful enough to make a move?
- Gloucester's supporters claimed that Hastings is colluding with the Woodvilles (doubtful though)
- This actions starts to spread fear
- (also arrests Lord Stanley and Bishop Morton)
What reason does Richard give for taking the throne?
Edward's marriage to Elizabeth was invalid/null and void, because of an earlier betrothal, and therefore Edward's sons are illegitimate. (In reality, this was just propaganda)
Who else does Richard execute just before he is proclaimed king?
- June - Rivers and Grey and Vaughn are executed at Pontefract (with no trial)
- Remember, Richard also executed Hastings before for no apparent reason - is he a murderer?
How can you describe Richard's coronation in July 1483? What else does he do immediately after his coronation?
- Very ostentatious and expensive.
- Richard commences Tour of England
- He lectures the judges on impartiality (propaganda and a reaction to Edward IV).
- Bearing in mind the nature of his usurpation, this is not surprising.
Why did Buckingham rebel against Richard in the Buckingham rebellion of October 1483?
- Reason not sure. Some argue that Bishop Morton, who was a captive of Buckingham's, persuaded him to join.
- Whatever reason, this shows how Buckingham's loyalty to Richard was a weak one, perhaps only fueled by greed.
Gentry from where mainly joined the rebellion?
Southern Gentry (eg. from Cornwall and Kent)
When Henry Tudor escapes back to exile after the Buckingham rebellion, give examples of those who joined him.
Morton, Dorset, Earl of Oxoford and a group from the South and West.
After the rebellion, how does Richard change?
- Before, he tried to win nobles over through patronage and granting offices.
- However, he changes this and now heavily relies on Northern gentry, which deepened the north/south divide.
In Jan 1484, how many people were attainted by Richard?
- (and their lands forfeited)
At no point in his reign does Richard have support from the ______ _______.
But he does have support from some of the nobility. Give examples.
- Most were Northerners, but some were won over through patronage such as William Hebert and John de la Pole.
- Also successful with the lesser nobility (again, mostly Northerners, such as Lord Grey of Condor and Lord Cobham
It is a sign of _____ that no English peer declared for Henry until the issue was decided at Bosworth.
But the situation depends on the 4 most powerful baronial families. Who?
- Buckingham (killed)
- Norfolk (remains loyal)
- Stanley (doubtful loyalty - trimmer)
- Northumberland (questionable)
Many men had at least accepted the new regime by the summer of 1485. How many men who had served EdIV also served Richard III?
Why did the southern nobles further resent Richard's management of the political nation? give examples.
- Because Richard "planted" his northern supporters in the south, by giving them land he seized after rebellions in 1483.
- Sir Richard Ratcliffe, William Catesby, Lord Lovell
Richard was less generous than his brother in use of patronage, but he managed to buy support (or acceptance at least) for his new regime. What positions did he elevate his trusty supporters, John & Thomas howard to? How did they repay him?
- John Howard - Duke of Norfolk
- Thomas Howard - Earl of Surrey
- Both repaid by fighting for the king at Bosworth.
How did Richard govern the north? And who could this have alienated?
- Replaced the usual practice of giving responsibility for the north to a powerful noble.
- Instead set up the Council of the North with John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln in charge.
- Norhumberland would have resented this because he, as a powerful noble in the north, wanted to be the leader of the Council of the North. - Could have been a major reason in his desertion at Bosworth.
Richard was accused by who for wasting Edward's treasure? However, how can we lift this blame, or at least some of it?
- Accused by the Crowland chronicler.
- However, Edward's wars towards the end of his reign (eg. on Scotland 1480) had diminished the royal coffers.
- Richard also had to pay for state funeral of EdIV and his own coronation.
Compare the financial policy of Richard to Edward. (Outline Richard's foreign policy)
- Virtually identical to Edward's policy. (eg. Chamber, added to crown lands through attainders but gave them out again to other nobles)
- Outlawed benevolences because they had been unpopular under EdIV, but eventually had to resort to forced loans (ie. very similar)
- Less successful than Edward in raising funds through loans.
Right at the start of his reign, what did Richard state?
- That it was his intention to bring justice to all members of society.
- Was this genuine goodwill or an attempt to portray himself as an effective king? (difficult to know, because he rules for so short)
What did Richard outlaw? What could have been his aim here?
- Benevolences (in his Parliament in 1484)
- Perhaps chance to stand out as an effective king, by improving Edward's weaknesses in this area (as this was unpopular) - law and order.
Outline Richard's other reforms in law and order.
- Commitment to the principle of bail for suspected felons.
- Set up the Council of Request (court for the poor)
- Rewarded the clerk of the council of request
- "Did as much as his brief and troubled reign permitted him" [Warren]
Outline failures of Richard's foreign policy.
- Failed to capitalise on Scotland's desire for peace.
- Finally made truce in 1484, but this didn't stop Scotland giving some help to Henry Tudor. (They also cemented the Auld alliance with France by this point)
- Henry Tudor also received help from Brittany then France.
Which dukedom did Richard then attempt to make an alliance with ? What was his "carrot" and what was his "stick" for the alliance.
- Duke Francis of Brittany (partly because Henry Tudor was in exile there)
- Carrot: offer earldom of Richmond to Duke Francis
- Stick: powerful English merchant fleet set out to pray on Breton ships.
What could Richard have done to prevent the French from assisting Henry Tudor?
By being more friendly with France.
Why is it hard to assess how able a king Richard was?
Any firm assessment of Richard is limited by the brevity (shortness) of his reign.
Richard used the accepted forms of ______ (eg. Parliament) but was prepared to act _____ too. Give example.
- illegally (contradictory of his policy to promote justice at the beginning of his reign.)
- eg. execution of Hastings, Lord Rivers, Grey without trial. Perhaps also killed the 2 princes in the Tower.
Outline the reasons why Henry Tudor won at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485.
- On the day + luck - Richard made tactical error & impulsive military gamble which cost him his life, his camp was in chaos in the morning (eg. many could not eat).
- Role of the nobility - eg. Stanleys, Northumberland (alienated by Richard because of Council of North)
- Many were not inspired by Richard's cause (did not win the hearts and minds of supporters) - eg. he had no heir since his son died, suspicion over death of princes.
- Henry Tudor had support of Charles VIII of France, had Yorkist support promising to marry Elizabeth of York if he became king. + support from Wales and southern gentry.
- No support from southern gentry - esp because he planted northerners (eg Lovell, Catesby, Ratcliffe) & also because of nature of his usurpation.
Why should have Richard won at Bosworth?
- Army with superior size (10-15,000) whereas Henry's prbably only abou 5,000.
- Richard had established the most advantageous position on the battlefield on top of Ambien Hill, whereas Henry took up position behind marshes.
- Richard was much more experienced in warfare than Henry was.