neuroCerebellum

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Author:
sdicarrado
ID:
149040
Filename:
neuroCerebellum
Updated:
2012-05-14 08:59:03
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neurology cerebellum
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neurology cerebellum
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  1. what is the function of the cerebellum
    • integration and coordination of signals from other areas of the brain
    • assists to sequence motor activities
    • monitors and corrects motor activities
    • aids the cortex in planning next movements, helping to make smooth transitions from one movement to the next
    • especially vital to the control of rapid muscular activities (running, typing, talking)
  2. what is the make up of the cerebellum?
    2 hemispheres separated by the "vermis", a worm-like structure
  3. the divisions of the hemispheres of the cerebellum
    • 3 major lobes
    • -- anterior (paleocerebellum)
    • -- middle (neocerebellum)
    • -- posterior or flocculonodular (archicerebellum)
    • each have a specific set of connections and set of functions with some overlap
  4. cerebellar connections to the spinal cord, brain stem, and forebrain are represented by what cerebellar peduncles?
    • inferior (restiform body)
    • middle (brachium pontis)
    • superior (brachium conjunctivum)
  5. what is the structural makeup of the cerebellum?
    • folia: parallel folds in the surface
    • follium: outer surface of each fold formed by a layer of gray matter called the cerebellar cortex
    • internal core of white matter ("tree of life")
    • 4 pairs of deep cerebellar nuclei
  6. what are the 4 pairs of deep cerebellar nuclei that lie deep to the white matter?
    • medial to lateral
    • fastigial
    • globose
    • emboliform
    • dentate

    globose and emboliform are normally combined as the nucleus interpositus
  7. what are the 3 cellular layers of the cerebellum?
    • outer to inner
    • molecular layer
    • purkinje cell layer
    • granule cell layer
  8. what is the cerebellum molecular layer?
    • contains stellate and basket cells; axons and dendrites of deeper cells
    • receives signals from the deeper layers
  9. what is the cerebellum purkinje cell layer?
    • large flask shaped cells w/ huge dendritic branches that extend up to the molecular layer
    • cells have one axon that extends down to synapse either on deep cerebellar nuclei or vestibular nuclei
  10. what is the cerebellum granule cell layer?
    • highly packed with cells
    • axons extend up toward molecular layer and bifurcate
    • fibers pass along folium (parallel to each other)
    • synapse w/ denritic branches of purkinje cells
  11. what cells and fibers compose the cerebellum?
    • purkinje cells
    • climbing fibers
    • mossy fibers
    • granule cell parallel fibers
    • golgi cells
    • basket/stellate cells
  12. what are the purkinje cells that make up the cerebellum?
    • provide inhibitory output to deep cerebellar nuclei
    • long axons
    • receive input from climbing and mossy fibers
  13. what are the climbing fibers that make up the cerebellum?
    • excitatory input from inferior olive
    • provide 200 synapses onto one purkinje cell
    • 1 fiber can fire purkinje cell to produce a "spot" of activity
  14. what are the mossy fibers that make up the cerebellum?
    • excitatory input from cord/brain stem
    • synapses on granule cells which then synapse on purkinje cell (divergence - 1 fiber can influence many purkinje cells)
    • receive input from widespread parts of CNS
    • one fiber is not strong enough to influence purkinje cell, requires summation
  15. what are the granule cell parallel fibers that make up the cerebellum?
    • synapse on purkinje cell dendrites to form a "beam" of activity
    • 1 synapse per purkinje cell
  16. what are the golgi cells that make up the cerebellum?
    • inhibitory cells in granule cell layers
    • receives input from granule cell parallel fibers, mossy fibers, and climbing fibers
    • inhibit the granule cells
    • form a brief burst of granule cell parallel fiber activity
  17. what are the basket/stellate cells that make up the cerebellum?
    • receive input from granule cell parallel fibers
    • provide lateral inhibition to "off beam" zone
  18. what are the two major axonal systems that deliver input to the cerebellar cortex?
    • Mossy fibers (synapse w/ granule cells - needs summation)
    • Climbing fibers (synapse w/ purkinje cells - no need for summation)
  19. what are the two functional divisions of the cerebellum?
    • the "vestibular" cerebellum
    • the "spinal" cerebellum

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