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  1. What 2 things does cell function require?
    • removal of nutrients and waste
    • homeostasis of surrounding fluids
  2. What people are made of 73% of water?
  3. What 2 reasons do infants have so much body water?
    low body fat and low bone mass
  4. What percentage of water are healthy males?
  5. What percentage of water are healthy females?
  6. What people are only 45% water?
  7. What are the 2 main fluid compartments?
    • intracellular fluid
    • extracellular fluid
  8. What has 2/3 volume of water?
    intracellular fluid
  9. What are 2 main extracellular places with water?
    • plasma
    • interstitial fluid
  10. What are 4 random places to find water in the body?
    • lymph
    • cerebral spinal fluid
    • intraocular fluid
    • synovial fluid
  11. Where is 40% of the body's water found?
    intracellular fluid
  12. Where is most of the water of the extracellular fluid?
    interstitial fluid (between cells)
  13. What 2 chemicals does extracellular fluid have more of than intracellular fluid?
    • sodium
    • chloride
  14. What 3 chemicals does intracellular fluid have more of than extracellular fluid?
    • potassium
    • phosphate
    • protein
  15. What is the chief cation of extracellular fluid?
  16. What is the major anion of extracellular fluid?
  17. What is the chief cation of intracellular fluid?
  18. What is the chief anion of intracellular fluid?
  19. What 2 pressures regulates fluid movement among compartments?
    • osmotic pressure
    • hydrostatic pressure
  20. How is interstitial fluid returned to the blood?
    via lymph system
  21. How does exchange between interstitial and intracellular fluid occur?
    selective permeability membranes
  22. What 2 things does an increase in plasma osmolality trigger?
    • thirst
    • ADH release
  23. What 2 things in the body regulate ADH release?
    • hypothalamus
    • osmoreceptors
  24. What type of urine is made with high ADH levels?
  25. What 2 things are produced when ADH release is low?
    • dilute urine
    • low volume of body fluids
  26. What is sodium's primary role?
    controlling extracellular fluid volume
  27. What accounts for up to 95% of extracellular fluid's solutes?
  28. What is the only cation that exerts significant osmotic pressure?
  29. What happens when pH of blood raises above 7.45?
  30. What happens when blood pH drops below 7.35?
  31. What 3 things are acid-base balances of blood regulated by?
    • chemical buffer system
    • respiratory system
    • renal system
  32. What system acts within seconds to closely regulate blood pH?
    chemical buffer system
  33. What system acts within minutes to regulate blood Ph?
    respiratory system
  34. What mechanism takes hours or days to respond to blood pH?
    renal system
  35. How does the chemical buffer system act?
    to resist pH
  36. What are 3 major chemical buffer systems?
    • phosphate buffer system
    • protein buffer system
    • bicarbonate buffer system
  37. What happens if there is more acid?
    • equation to the left
    • break down bicarbonate to cabon dioxide and water
  38. What happens if you add mroe carbon dioxide?
    • drives equation right
    • make bicarbonate
  39. When is the respiratory rate andf depth increased?
    • hypercapnia
    • increased hydrogen ions
  40. What is the ultimate acid base regulatory organ?
  41. What 3 ways do kidneys regulate acid base?
    • secrete hydrogen
    • reabsorb bicarbonate
    • excrete bicarbonate
  42. What 2 conditions result as a failure of the respiratory system to balance pH?
    acidosis and alkalosis
  43. What is the most improtant indicator of respiratory pH balance?
    partial pressure of carbon dioxide
  44. What is the range for partial pressure of carbon dioxide to maintain pH balance?
    34-45 mmHg
  45. What is another name for respiratory acidosis?
  46. When does hypoventilation occur?
    when partial pressure of carbon dioxide rises above 45mmHg
  47. What is pneumonia emphysemia?
    impaired lung function
  48. What is another name for hyperventilation?
    respiratory alkalosis
  49. What happens when partial pressure of carbon dioxide falls below 35mmHg?
  50. What 2 things is hyperventilation caused by?
    pain or stress
  51. What is the most important indicator for metabolic pH balance?
    bicarbonate level
  52. What is the range for bicarbonate levels?
    22-26 mE g/L
  53. What 6 things is metabolic acidosis caused by?
    • diarrhea
    • alcohol
    • lactic acid
    • reneal failure
    • diabetes
    • starvation
  54. What 3 thigns is metabolic alkalosis caused by?
    • vomiting
    • antacids
    • aldosterone
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