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What 2 things does cell function require?
removal of nutrients and waste
homeostasis of surrounding fluids
What people are made of 73% of water?
What 2 reasons do infants have so much body water?
low body fat and low bone mass
What percentage of water are healthy males?
What percentage of water are healthy females?
What people are only 45% water?
What are the 2 main fluid compartments?
What has 2/3 volume of water?
What are 2 main extracellular places with water?
What are 4 random places to find water in the body?
cerebral spinal fluid
Where is 40% of the body's water found?
Where is most of the water of the extracellular fluid?
interstitial fluid (between cells)
What 2 chemicals does extracellular fluid have more of than intracellular fluid?
What 3 chemicals does intracellular fluid have more of than extracellular fluid?
What is the chief cation of extracellular fluid?
What is the major anion of extracellular fluid?
What is the chief cation of intracellular fluid?
What is the chief anion of intracellular fluid?
What 2 pressures regulates fluid movement among compartments?
How is interstitial fluid returned to the blood?
via lymph system
How does exchange between interstitial and intracellular fluid occur?
selective permeability membranes
What 2 things does an increase in plasma osmolality trigger?
What 2 things in the body regulate ADH release?
What type of urine is made with high ADH levels?
What 2 things are produced when ADH release is low?
low volume of body fluids
What is sodium's primary role?
controlling extracellular fluid volume
What accounts for up to 95% of extracellular fluid's solutes?
What is the only cation that exerts significant osmotic pressure?
What happens when pH of blood raises above 7.45?
What happens when blood pH drops below 7.35?
What 3 things are acid-base balances of blood regulated by?
chemical buffer system
What system acts within seconds to closely regulate blood pH?
chemical buffer system
What system acts within minutes to regulate blood Ph?
What mechanism takes hours or days to respond to blood pH?
How does the chemical buffer system act?
to resist pH
What are 3 major chemical buffer systems?
phosphate buffer system
protein buffer system
bicarbonate buffer system
What happens if there is more acid?
equation to the left
break down bicarbonate to cabon dioxide and water
What happens if you add mroe carbon dioxide?
drives equation right
When is the respiratory rate andf depth increased?
increased hydrogen ions
What is the ultimate acid base regulatory organ?
What 3 ways do kidneys regulate acid base?
What 2 conditions result as a failure of the respiratory system to balance pH?
acidosis and alkalosis
What is the most improtant indicator of respiratory pH balance?
partial pressure of carbon dioxide
What is the range for partial pressure of carbon dioxide to maintain pH balance?
What is another name for respiratory acidosis?
When does hypoventilation occur?
when partial pressure of carbon dioxide rises above 45mmHg
What is pneumonia emphysemia?
impaired lung function
What is another name for hyperventilation?
What happens when partial pressure of carbon dioxide falls below 35mmHg?
What 2 things is hyperventilation caused by?
pain or stress
What is the most important indicator for metabolic pH balance?
What is the range for bicarbonate levels?
22-26 mE g/L
What 6 things is metabolic acidosis caused by?
What 3 thigns is metabolic alkalosis caused by?