Chem111 Ch 11&12 Notes

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kaylaspohn
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149088
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Chem111 Ch 11&12 Notes
Updated:
2012-04-22 14:45:01
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chem
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chem 111 from chapters 11 and 12 notes from note packet
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  1. 1 atm = ____torr
    1 atm = ____mmHg
    1 atm = ____Pa
    • 760 torr
    • 760 mmHg
    • 101,325 Pa
  2. ha / hb = ____
    da / db
  3. Charles' Law (Temperature‐Volume Law)
    v1 / t1 = v2 / t2
  4. Gay‐Lussac's Law (Temperature‐Pressure Law)
    p1 / t1 = p2 / t2
  5. Combined Gas Law
  6. Define Avogadro's Principle.
    Equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of moles when compared at the same temperature and pressure. At STP, 273.15 K and 1.00 atm, 1 mol of an ideal gas occupies a volume of 22.4 L.
  7. At STP
    T=
    P=
    V=
    • T= 273.15 K
    • P= 1 atm
    • Standard molar volume= 22.414
  8. Ideal Gas Law
    PV=nRT
  9. Graham's Law of Effusion
  10. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
  11. Define Diffusion.
    the spreading out of molecules of one gas into another until they are completly mixed (moving from one area of high partial pressure into an area pf lower partial pressure).
  12. Define Effusion.
    the movement of gas molecules through a small opening into a lower pressure area.
  13. Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases.
    • 1. Gases consist of molecules whose seperation is much grater in size than the size of the molecules themselves.
    • 2. The molecules of a gas are in continual, random, and rapid motion.
    • 3. The average kenetic energy of gas molecules is determined by the gas temperature. All molecules, regardless of their mass, have the same average kentic energy at the same temperature.
    • 4. Gas molecules collide with one another and with the walls of their container, but they do so without loss if energy (elastic collisions).
  14. Which are stonger...
    intermolecular forses or intramolecular forces?
    intramolecular
  15. Define intermolcular forces.
    (also called_______).
    • attractive forces that exsit between neighboring molecules.
    • ( also called van der Waals forces)
  16. Define dipole-dipole interations.
    1% of the strength if covalent bonds, decrese with increasing distance between molecules, formed by dipoles "lining up" within a solid or liquid
  17. Define hydrogen bonds.
    one of the strongest intermolecular attractions, five times stronger than dipole-dipole attractions


    only happens when there is F, N, O
  18. Define london forces.
    attraction between non- polar molecules caused by an instantaneous dipole.


    weakest!
  19. Define induced dipole.
    caused by the instantous dipole in one molecule causing a dipole in another molecule.
  20. London forces increase in strength with ______________________________.
    increasing size of molecules
  21. Ions can cause _____ in other ions
    induced diploes
  22. Which is a stronger dipole?

    F- or F2
    F-
  23. What is an ion-induced dipole?
    a dipole induced by proximity to the permanent dipole in an ion
  24. Why are intermolecular forces even stonger in solids?
    because the molecules are held so closely together that they retain their shape
  25. Define surface tention.
    the behavior of the surface of a liquid due to unequal molecular forces.
  26. What is "wetting" known as?
    the spreading of a liquid across a solid surface
  27. When a surface has low surface tention it ____________.
    easily wets surface
  28. When a surface has a high surface tention it ______________________.
    beads up and doesnt wet things
  29. What is a surfactant?
    chemicals that decrease the surface tention and increase wetting power
  30. What does vicosity mean?
    resistance to flow
  31. Define evaporation.
    change from liquid to gas
  32. Define condensation.
    change from gas to liquid
  33. define sublimation.
    change from solid to vapor
  34. define deposition
    change from gas to solid
  35. define fusion
    • melting...
    • solid to liquid
  36. define freezing
    change from liquid to solid
  37. what does the heating curve look like?
  38. what does the cooling curve look like?
  39. the Clausius‐Claperyon Equation
  40. if heat is added more _____ is produced
    vapor
  41. if heat is removed more _____ is produced
    liquid
  42. as intermolecular attractions increase the critical point _____.
    increases
  43. corners have how many atoms
    1 atom/cell unit
  44. how many atoms does a body centered cell have?
    2atoms/unit cell
  45. how many atoms does a face centered cell have?
    4 atoms/unit cell
  46. how many atoms does a base centered cell have?
    2 atoms/unit cell
  47. what does amophous solid mean?
    also called ____ or _____
    • non-crystalline solids, have long molecules that are entwined, no sharp melting points
    • also called supercooled liquids or glass
  48. type of crystal: ionic
    what is its lattice points...
    what is its characteristics
    • latice points: ions
    • characteristics: hard, brittle, high melting temp, conduct electricity when melted
  49. type of crystal: molecular
    what is its lattice points...
    what is its characteristics
    • latice points: atoms or molecules
    • characteristics: soft, low melting, non-conductors when liquid or solid, london or dipole forces
  50. type of crystal: covalent (network)
    what is its lattice points...
    what is its characteristics
    • latice points: atoms
    • characteristics: covalent bonds, very hard, extremely high melting points, non-conductor
  51. type of crystal: metallic
    what is its lattice points...
    what is its characteristics
    • latice points: metal ions
    • characteristics: +ions and - electron cloud, lusterous (shinny), conduct as liquid or solid, melting points and hardness varies
  52. what is the equation for finding the density of something using the PV=nRT equation?

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