Emb Section 4

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  1. General duty clause
  2. each employer shall furnish to each of their employees a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to their employees
  3. Hazardous communication standard
    applies to ALL employees regardless of size

    since May 23, 1988

    employer must communicate information about ANY hazardous chemicals in the workplace
  4. Hazardous communication standard includes:

    - Material ________ Data Sheet

    - Hazardous material labeling

    - Employee information and trianing

    - Documentation of the above
  5. Material safety data sheet
    must accompany the first shipment of a hazardous chemical from the manufacturer and distributor

    this is the KEYSTONE of the hazard communication standard

    a file must be established at the mortuary wherein all MSDSs are kept for employee inspection and referral
  6. Hazardous material labeling
    all containers of hazardous materials must be marked with the name as it appears on the MSDS

    and include appropriate warnings
  7. EPA: Community right-to-know rule
    classifies chemicals that are stored by employers of businesses including mortuaries

    hazardous or extremely hazardous chemicals

    this rule issued regulations concerning the use of control of embalming chemicals
  8. The EPA: Community right-to-know rule requires employers that store hazardous chemicals to file an MSDS form and detailed report with all of the following:
    state emergency response commission

    local emergency planning committee

    local fire department
  9. According to the EPA: community right-to-know rule formaldehyde is listed as

    - hazardous or extremely hazardous chemical
    extremely hazardous chemical
  10. Formaldehyde rule (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1048)
    February 2, 1988

    1) medical surveillance

    2) formaldehyde in different states (gas, in water, etc.)

    3) exposure limits

    4) monitoring

    5) methods of compliance

    6) PPE

    7) housekeeping

    8) annual training of employees
  11. Formaldehyde rule (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1048): Medical surveillance
    a) potential hazards

    b) signs and symptoms of HCHO overexposure

    c) employee reporting

    d) medical removal protection
  12. Formaldehyde rule (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1048): Medical surveillance: potential hazards
    acute or suddent effects: ingestion, inhalation, dermal

    chronic or long term effects: carcinogenicity, toxicity, mutagenicity
  13. Formaldehyde rule (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1048): Medical surveillance: potential hazards: acute or suddent effects:
    ingestion: (swallowing) causes throat irritation, highly poisonous and will cause death

    inhalation: (breathing) irritates upper respiratory system with inflammation to the nose, throat and lungs

    dermal: (skin) causes drying cracking and scaling dermatitis, and skin sensitization
  14. Formaldehyde rule (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1048): Medical surveillance: potential hazards: chronic or long term effects
    carcinogenicity: potential cancer in human lung, nasopharynx, and nasal passages

    toxicity: may result in respiratory impairment such as asthma and bronchitis

    mutagenicity: can cause genetic mutations. genotoxic in several on-vitro tests showing properties of mutation
  15. Formaldehyde rule (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1048): signs and symptoms of HCHO overexposure
    irritation of the mucosa of the eyes, nose and throat

    occurs above 0.1 parts per million (ppm)

    levels at or above 100 ppm are immediately dangerous to life and health
  16. Formaldehyde rule (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1048): signs and symptoms of HCHO overexposure
    slight eye irritation occurs between 0.05-0.5 ppm

    0.01 ppm requires goggles and/or a face shield
  17. Formaldehyde rule (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1048): Medical surveillance: employee reporting
    employee must report to employer any signs or symptoms of potential overexposure

    employee must be annually offered a medical disease questionnaire

    PEL: permissible exposure limit for an 8 hour work day

    STEL: short-term exposure limit for a 15 minute interval

    • these limits consider how many parts of HCHO are present in one million parts of air
    • PPM: parts per million
  18. Formaldehyde rule (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1048): Medical surveillance: medical removal protection
    employees with significant adverse effects from HCHO exposure must be removed to jobs with less exposure until their condition improves

    employee benefits can continue for up to six months or until physician determines employee able to return
  19. Formaldehyde rule (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1048): HCHO in different states
    the natural state of HCHO is: gas

    HCHO gas solutions: formalin = HCHO gas in H2O. 40% HCHO by volume or 37% by weight the rest is water or water and methyl alcohol

    paraformaldehyde: it is a polymer of formaldehyde. it is a white powder used as a hardening compound, maunly used in autopsied cases. it contains 85-99% HCHO

    solids and mixtures containing HCHO (CH2O)
  20. Formaldehyde rule (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1048): exposure limits
    PEL = 0.75 parts HCHO in one million parts of air as a time-weighted average (TWA) over an 8-hour work day (prior to 2.2.88 it was 1 ppm)

    STEL = 2 ppm for 15 mins; established in the event of a spill (prior to 2.2.88 it was 5 ppm for 30 mins)

    Prep rooms with adequate ventilation (15-20 ACH - air changes per hour) should measure below these levels. PPE also protects you against splash exposures
  21. Formaldehyde rule (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1048): purpose of PPEs
    to form a barrier and to protect the handler of hazardous chemicals

    to prevent all contact of the eyes and skin w liquids
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Emb Section 4
Emb Section 4
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