A&P-5

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Author:
heather.whalon
ID:
149148
Filename:
A&P-5
Updated:
2012-04-22 20:22:44
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Saladin Cptr
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Description:
Histology
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  1. Number of Cells in Human
    50trillion
  2. Number of Types of Cells
    ~200 cell types in human body
  3. 4 Tissue Catagories
    • Epithelial
    • connective
    • Nervous
    • Muscular
  4. Organ function derived from
    the cells they contain as well as how the cells are organized into tissues
  5. organ
    structure with discrete boundarise composed of 2+ (often all 4) tissues
  6. Histology
    a.k.a microscopic anatomy--study of tissues and how they are arranged into organs
  7. Tissue
    group of similar cells anc cell products that arise formt he same region of hte embryo and work together to perform a specific structural or physiological role
  8. Matrix (tissue)
    extracellular material which surrounds the cells (within a tissue) composed of fibers and ground substance
  9. Ground Substance
    • clear gel often found within matrix (a.k.a. tissue fluid, extracellular fluid--ECF, or interstitial fluid) containing water, gases, minerals, nutrients, wastes, hormones, and other chemicals.
    • clear gel often found within matrix (a.k.a. tissue fluid, extracellular fluid--ECF, or interstitial fluid)
  10. Tissue Fluid
    clear gel often found within matrix (a.k.a. ground substance, extracellular fluid--ECF, or interstitial fluid) containing water, gases, minerals, nutrients, wastes, hormones, and other chemicals.
  11. Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
    clear gel often found within matrix (a.k.a. tissue fluid, ground substance, or interstitial fluid) containing water, gases, minerals, nutrients, wastes, hormones, and other chemicals.
  12. Interstitial Fluid
    clear gel often found within matrix (a.k.a. tissue fluid, extracellular fluid--ECF, or ground substance) containing water, gases, minerals, nutrients, wastes, hormones, and other chemicals.
  13. Primary Germ Layers
    Initial 3 strata formed in an embryo: extoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
  14. Ectoderm
    Outer layer of primary germ layers that gives rise to epidermis and nervous system
  15. Endoderm
    Innermost of primary germ layers giving rise to mucous membrandes of the digestive and respiratory tracts and to the digestive glands, among others
  16. Mesoderm
    Middle layer of primary germ layers containing moore loosely organized cells which eventually turns to a gelatinous tissue called mesenchyme
  17. mesenchyme
  18. gelatinous tisse
    • arrisinge from the mesoderm which containes fine, wispy collagen (protein
    • fimers and branching mesenchymal cells
  19. mesenchyme gives
    rise to
  20. muscle, bone,
    blod, etc.
  21. histological
    sections
  22. tissue
    • preparations mounted on microscope slides generally artificially colored to
    • bring out detail
  23. fixative
  24. chemical (e.g.
    formalin) which preserves tissues to prevent decay
  25. sectioning
  26. cutting of tissues
    • into a 2D slice one or two cells thick to allow the light of a microscope to
    • pass thorough--so that the image is not comfused by too many layers of
    • overlapping cells
  27. stains
  28. coloring elements
    • which bind differently to different componenet of a tissue in order to
    • differentiate between cell types
  29. plane of section
  30. angle at which a
    • slice is taken through tissue--important to consider when mentally
    • reconstructing a 2D image (e.g. a meandering uterus gland--[pic])
  31. longitudinal
    section (l.s.)
  32. a tissue cut in
    the long direction (e.g. the length of the humerus
  33. cross section (c.s.
    or x.s.)
  34. a.k.a transverse
    section (t.s.); a cut perpendicular to the long axis
  35. oblique section
  36. section cut at an
    angle
  37. smears
  38. histological
    • prepartion in which the tisse is rubbed or spread across a slide rather than
    • sliced (e.g. liquid tissue--blood, soft tissuue--spinal cord)
  39. spread
  40. histological
    • preparation in which tissue is laid out on a slide (as if placing a small
    • square of tisse paper or a tuft of lint) used for membranes and cobwebby
    • tissue such as areolar tissue
  41. epithelial tissue
  42. seet of closeley
    • adhereing cells, 1+ cells thick, with surface generally exposed to the
    • environment or an internal space
  43. epithelial tissue
  44. seet of closeley
    • adhereing cells, 1+ cells thick, with surface generally exposed to the
    • environment or an internal space
  45. location of
    epithelia tissue
  46. covers body
    • surface, lines body cavities, forms external and internal linings of many
    • organs, contitutes most gland tissue
  47. function of
    epithelial tissue
  48. protection,
    secretion, excretion, absorptin, filtration, sensation
  49. epithelial
    function--protection
  50. guard deeper
    • tissues form invation/injury/infection (e.g.--stomach lining protects from
    • stomach acid and enzymes
  51. epithelial
    function--secretion
  52. produce mucus,
    seat, enzymes hormones, most other secretions
  53. epithelial
    function--excretion
  54. void wastes from
    • the tissues( e.g. CO2 across pulmonary epithelium and bile form liver
    • epithelium)
  55. epithelial
    function--absorption
  56. absorb chemicals
    • from adjacent medium; (e.g. nearly all nutrients absorbed through epithelium
    • of small intestine
  57. epithelial
    function--filtration
  58. E.g. all
    • substances leaving the blood are sleectively filtered thorugh the blood
    • vessels' epithelium; all urinary waste is filtered through epithelia of
    • kidneys
  59. epithelial
    function--sensation
  60. epithelia are
    • provided with nerve endings that sense stimulation( e.g. touch on skin,
    • irritation of stomach)
  61. epithelium
    vascularity
  62. avascular, but
    • almost always lie on vessel-rich layer of loose connective tissue (gives
    • nutrients and waste removal)
  63. epithelium
    cellularity
  64. very highly
    • cellular w/very thin extracellular material, cells closely packed (like
    • bricks and mortar)
  65. epithelial mitosis
  66. cells closest to
    • the connective tissue typically show high mitosis rate which allows quick
    • repair
  67. basement membrane
  68. layer b/w the
    • epithelium and underlying connective tissue containing collagen,
    • glycoproteins, other protein-carbohydrate complexes; it blends into the
    • proteins of the underlying connective tissue
  69. basement membrane
    function
  70. anchors epitheium
    • to connective tissue, regulates exchange of materials, binds growth factors
    • that regulate epithelial development
  71. basal surface
  72. surface of an
    epithelial cell that faces the basement membrane
  73. apical surface
  74. cell curface
    • facing a way from basement membrane toward internal cavity (lumen) of an
    • organ
  75. simple epithelium
    • simple squamous
    • simple cuboidal
    • simple columnar
    • pseudostratified coulmnar
  76. goblet cells
  77. found in simple columnar or pseudostratified
    • columnar and produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes;
    • expanded apical end (giving it its wineglass shape) is filled w/secretory
    • vesicles whose product absorbs/mixes w/water to create mucus
  78. stratified
    epithelia
  79. range from 2-20+
    • cell layers with only the deepest attached to basement membrane; named
    • according to surface/apical cell: stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal,
    • stratified columnar, transistional

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