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  1. what is hypersensitivity?
    when the immune system does harm in reacting to antigen
  2. What is sensitization?
    describes increasing reaction to allergen per exposure
  3. What is an allergen?
  4. What type is an immediate reaction to an allergy?
    type 1 allergy
  5. What antibodies are related to Type 1 allergens?
  6. Where are IgE antibodies found?
    • on surface of basophils
    • on surface of mast cells
  7. Where are mast cells found?
    • in the subcutaneous tissue
    • in airways
  8. What do IgE antibodies usually target?
    parasitic worms
  9. What does the allergen stimulate in a person?
    IgE antibodies attached to basophils and mast cells
  10. What happens when basophils and mast cells are stimulated?
    they release chemicals causing swelling
  11. What chemicals do basophils and mast cells release when theyre stimulated?
    • histamine
    • prostaglandins
    • leukotreins
  12. What kind of reaction occurs systemically?
    type 1, immediate
  13. What 2 problems happen with an immediate allergy?
    • anaphylactic shock
    • bronchiospasms
  14. What is a systemic type 1 reaction called?
    anaphylactic shock
  15. What happens when basophils are stimulated in the blood stream causing anaphylactic shock?
    • blood vessels dialate
    • blood pressure drops
    • brain loses blood
  16. What happens when there is fluid in the airways of bronchioles causing constriction, eventually suffocation?
  17. What are 2 tests done to determine if someone has allergies?
    • blood test for many IgE
    • skin test prick of allergens
  18. What are 2 methods of prevention of type 1 allergic reactions?
    • avoid allergens
    • allergy shots
  19. How can you treat a type 1 allergic reaction after being exposed to the allergen?
  20. What 2 things does epinephrine do to reverse anaphylactic shock and bronchispasms?
    • dilates bronchioles
    • constricts blood vessels
  21. What are 3 types of localized type 1 reactions?
    • hay fever
    • asthma
    • hives
  22. What is the type 1 reaction where allergens are inhaled and stay in the upper respiratory?
    hay fever
  23. What is the type 1 reaction where allergens are inhaled and go deeper than the upper respiratory?
  24. What is the type 1 reaction where allergens are ingested?
  25. What types of allergic reaction involved IgM and IgG antibodies?
    • type 2
    • type 3
  26. What do IgG antibodies activate?
    complement proteins
  27. What are 3 examples of type 2 allergic reactions?
    • whole blood transfusions
    • Rh incompatibility (pregnancy)
    • Myasthenia Gravis
  28. What antigens are found on AB blood?
    A and B antigens
  29. What 4 things happen when the wrong blood is given to someone?
    • foreign RBCs in blood
    • IgM and IgG detect antigens
    • antibodies activate complement
    • complement perform cytolysis on foreign RBCs
  30. What 2 things happen when Rh- mom bears RH + baby?
    • IgG cross placenta
    • IgG attack baby RBCs
  31. What medicine is used to inhbit Rh incompatibility?
  32. What is the name for type 1 allergic reactions?
    anaphylactic (immediate)
  33. What is the name for type 2 allergic reactions?
  34. What is type of allergic reaction is immune complex reactions?
    type 3
  35. What type of allergic reaction is cell mediated (delayed) reactions?
    type 4
  36. What are 4 type 4 reactions?
    • 1. Glomerulonephritis
    • 2. Rheumatic Fever
    • 3. Rheumatoid Arthritis*
    • 4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus / SLE / Lupus *
  37. What2 things can happens when a person has continuous untreated reoccurences of strep throat?
    • glomerulonephritis
    • rheumatic fever
  38. Why do IgG and IgMs attack kidney tissue after so many strep throat cases in one person?
    Antibody receptors much like the identification on kidney tissue
  39. What 2 tissues have similiar identification on their cell surface as strep pyogenes?
    • heart valve tissue
    • kidney tissue
  40. What is it called when antibodies are made to attack disease and attack self tissues instead?
    cross reaction (autoimmune)
  41. What mechanisms are involved in type 4 reactions?
    t helper cells in their cell mediated role
  42. What is t helper cell's role in cell mediated immunity?
    stimulate macrophages to increase in size and attract more to site
  43. What are 2 type 4 reactions?
    • contact dermatitis
    • transplant rejection
  44. What is type 4 excess inflammation of the skin called?
    contact dermatitis
  45. What is contact dermatitis treated with?
    anti inflammatories
  46. What are 2 side effects of receiving transplant antirejection medication?
    high risk of infection and cancer
  47. What 2 transplants are rejected by the body?
    allograph and xenographs
  48. What are 4 types of transplants?
    • Autograft
    • Isograft
    • Allograft
    • Xenograft
  49. What 2 transplants are not rejected by the body?
    • autograft
    • isograft
  50. What transplant is frmo an identical twin?
  51. What transplant is from your self?
  52. What transplant is from someone outside of yourself or twin?
  53. What transplant is from an animal?
  54. What are 2 types of immunosupression?
    • hypogammaglobulinemia
    • agammaglobulinemia
  55. What immunosuppression is a genetic disorder where someone doesn't have enough antibodies in the blood stream and can't fight off infections?
  56. What immunosupression is a genetic disorder where a person is inable of making antibodies?
  57. How is agammaglobulinemia treated?
    • routine antibody shots
    • artificial passive
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