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what is hypersensitivity?
when the immune system does harm in reacting to antigen
What is sensitization?
describes increasing reaction to allergen per exposure
What is an allergen?
What type is an immediate reaction to an allergy?
type 1 allergy
What antibodies are related to Type 1 allergens?
Where are IgE antibodies found?
- on surface of basophils
- on surface of mast cells
Where are mast cells found?
- in the subcutaneous tissue
- in airways
What do IgE antibodies usually target?
What does the allergen stimulate in a person?
IgE antibodies attached to basophils and mast cells
What happens when basophils and mast cells are stimulated?
they release chemicals causing swelling
What chemicals do basophils and mast cells release when theyre stimulated?
What kind of reaction occurs systemically?
type 1, immediate
What 2 problems happen with an immediate allergy?
- anaphylactic shock
What is a systemic type 1 reaction called?
What happens when basophils are stimulated in the blood stream causing anaphylactic shock?
- blood vessels dialate
- blood pressure drops
- brain loses blood
What happens when there is fluid in the airways of bronchioles causing constriction, eventually suffocation?
What are 2 tests done to determine if someone has allergies?
- blood test for many IgE
- skin test prick of allergens
What are 2 methods of prevention of type 1 allergic reactions?
- avoid allergens
- allergy shots
How can you treat a type 1 allergic reaction after being exposed to the allergen?
What 2 things does epinephrine do to reverse anaphylactic shock and bronchispasms?
- dilates bronchioles
- constricts blood vessels
What are 3 types of localized type 1 reactions?
What is the type 1 reaction where allergens are inhaled and stay in the upper respiratory?
What is the type 1 reaction where allergens are inhaled and go deeper than the upper respiratory?
What is the type 1 reaction where allergens are ingested?
What types of allergic reaction involved IgM and IgG antibodies?
What do IgG antibodies activate?
What are 3 examples of type 2 allergic reactions?
- whole blood transfusions
- Rh incompatibility (pregnancy)
- Myasthenia Gravis
What antigens are found on AB blood?
A and B antigens
What 4 things happen when the wrong blood is given to someone?
- foreign RBCs in blood
- IgM and IgG detect antigens
- antibodies activate complement
- complement perform cytolysis on foreign RBCs
What 2 things happen when Rh- mom bears RH + baby?
- IgG cross placenta
- IgG attack baby RBCs
What medicine is used to inhbit Rh incompatibility?
What is the name for type 1 allergic reactions?
What is the name for type 2 allergic reactions?
What is type of allergic reaction is immune complex reactions?
What type of allergic reaction is cell mediated (delayed) reactions?
What are 4 type 4 reactions?
- 1. Glomerulonephritis
- 2. Rheumatic Fever
- 3. Rheumatoid Arthritis*
- 4. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus / SLE / Lupus *
What2 things can happens when a person has continuous untreated reoccurences of strep throat?
- rheumatic fever
Why do IgG and IgMs attack kidney tissue after so many strep throat cases in one person?
Antibody receptors much like the identification on kidney tissue
What 2 tissues have similiar identification on their cell surface as strep pyogenes?
- heart valve tissue
- kidney tissue
What is it called when antibodies are made to attack disease and attack self tissues instead?
cross reaction (autoimmune)
What mechanisms are involved in type 4 reactions?
t helper cells in their cell mediated role
What is t helper cell's role in cell mediated immunity?
stimulate macrophages to increase in size and attract more to site
What are 2 type 4 reactions?
- contact dermatitis
- transplant rejection
What is type 4 excess inflammation of the skin called?
What is contact dermatitis treated with?
What are 2 side effects of receiving transplant antirejection medication?
high risk of infection and cancer
What 2 transplants are rejected by the body?
allograph and xenographs
What are 4 types of transplants?
What 2 transplants are not rejected by the body?
What transplant is frmo an identical twin?
What transplant is from your self?
What transplant is from someone outside of yourself or twin?
What transplant is from an animal?
What are 2 types of immunosupression?
What immunosuppression is a genetic disorder where someone doesn't have enough antibodies in the blood stream and can't fight off infections?
What immunosupression is a genetic disorder where a person is inable of making antibodies?
How is agammaglobulinemia treated?
- routine antibody shots
- artificial passive
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